All numbers in your Abstract should be typed as digits rather than words, except those that begin a sentence. The body of your research paper begins on a new page, Page 3. The whole text should be typed flush-left with each paragraph's first line indented spaces from the left. Also, avoid hyphenating words at ends of line. Text Citations are important to avoid issues of plagiarism. The main principle here is that, all ideas and words of others should be properly and formally acknowledged.
The Reference Section lists all the sources you've previously cited in the body of your research paper. The Appendix is where unpublished tests or other descriptions of complex equipment or stimulus materials are presented. Footnotes are occasionally used to back up substantial information in your text. They can be found centered on the first line below the Running Head, numbered as they are identified in the text.
What is the difference between Tables and Figures? Tables are used to present quantitative data or statistical results of analyses. Examples of quantitative data are population, age, frequency, etc. Figures on the other hand come in different forms. These could be graphs, images or illustrations other than tables. Figures are commonly used to show a particular trend, or to compare results of experiments with respect to constant and changing variables.
Understandably, it can be overwhelming to compile a paper that conforms to all these rules! But remember that when in doubt you can always consult your supervisor, who will have more insight about the writing conventions in your field. Reading published papers that are similar to yours will likewise give you some insight into the correct layout. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Retrieved Sep 14, from Explorable.
The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level.
Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: Also, if you are writing four or more grades in the same sentence, then use numerals for all of them.
Use a hyphen with a grade number when the ordinal form is used as a compound adjective before a noun. Otherwise, do not use a hyphen with a grade number.
If several ordinal grades are presented in a series of compound adjectives, then use hyphens with each. Sometimes these rules intersect in ways that may make a sentence look awkward; in the sentence below, it is correct to use a word for ninth and numerals for 10th and 11th , and although there is nothing wrong with this from an APA Style perspective, it may set off internal alarm bells for you. Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence. Although this is not required, it may make you feel happier about your writing, and we are all for you feeling happy about your writing.
For more on numeral usage, see Sections 4. If you have additional questions about how to write about grades in APA Style, leave a question in the comments section. Posted by Chelsea Lee at If a reference list entry begins with a number as might be the case for a reference with no author , you should alphabetize the entry in the reference list as though the number were spelled out.
So in the following example, the reference that begins with 50 would be alphabetized as though 50 were written fifty. The compendium of kittens 2nd ed. A book about cats. For numbers that represent years, use the way the year is commonly said to alphabetize the reference.
In the text, cite references beginning with a number with the first two pieces of the reference list entry: If the title in the reference list is nonitalic, put the title in double quotation marks in the in-text citation and captialize it using title case; if the title in the reference list is italic, keep the title in italics in the in-text citation and capitalize it using title case.
If the title is long, you can use just the first few words. The number one mistake on that list is presenting numbers incorrectly. In this post, I'll be specifically focusing on how to properly present definite and estimated numbers. According to section 4. For instance, one would write 5 days instead of five days. However, there is an exception to this rule: When referring to approximate units of time e. You may have noticed that this is a very specific exception.
You may also be wondering whether this exception applies other approximate values. The short answer is no. This exception applies only to units of time—no such exceptions apply to any other approximate units of measure.
However, keep in mind that precision and clarity are key to any form of writing, especially in the sciences, so always try to present definite numbers when possible.
For more information about writing numbers in APA Style, take a look at our series of posts on numbers and metrication and our FAQ page about when to express numbers as words. Posted by David Becker at So far we have covered the general differences between MLA and APA styles and reviewed how their rules differ when creating in-text citations and reference list entries. However, a reader asked that we cover another difference between the two styles: The two styles have very different rules for when to write numbers as words or numerals.
APA Style, on the other hand, generally uses words for numbers below 10 and numerals for numbers 10 and above. However, the MLA Handbook further notes that science writers frequently use numerals for various kinds of data, such as units of measurement and statistical expressions, regardless of size.
In ranges of numbers, MLA Style includes the entire second number for numbers up to 99 ; ; but uses only the last two digits of the second number for larger numbers, unless more are needed ; ; 2, ; 5, Ranges of years beginning in AD have their own rules: If the first two digits of both years are the same, include only the last two digits of the second year ; Otherwise, both numbers should be fully written out ; APA Style does not have explicit rules for ranges of numbers, except for when referring to a page range or a range of dates in a reference list entry.
Numerous examples in Chapter 7 of the Publication Manual show both numbers in a page range being written out in full, regardless of size, and example 23 on page demonstrates the same concept applied to a range of years. Thus, a range of numbers 10—40 ; — ; 5,—5, ; 90,—90, or dates — ; — should never be abbreviated. I hope that this post will help those of you transitioning from MLA Style to APA Style the next time you need to include numbers in your research papers.
Be sure to also check out our series of posts on numbers and metrication and our FAQ page on when to express numbers as words. Your question may be the subject of a future post! Posted by David Becker at 3: Have you ever had the urge to read the Publication Manual from beginning to end? This course, available for continuing education credit, provides a comprehensive tour of the guidance in the Publication Manual.
Basics of APA Style: Many of the sections in the course include relevant examples to provide context, and each section ends with two or three review questions to help you learn as you go along. We hope you find the course a helpful tool for learning APA Style!
If you would like a broader less detailed overview of APA Style, we offer a free tutorial, The Basics of APA Style , which shows you how to structure and format your work, recommends ways to reduce bias in language, identifies how to avoid charges of plagiarism, shows how to cite references in text, and provides selected reference examples.
Posted by Anne Woodworth Gasque at Use the symbol only when it is preceded by a numeral; otherwise, spell out the word percentage. On the same page, the Manual also notes just one exception: Posted by Timothy McAdoo at 3: In the social sciences, the worlds of grammar and mathematics intersect, as authors must not only run statistical tests but also write about their results in a clear, consistent way.
To help achieve that end, this post focuses on some of the grammar of mathematics: The sixth edition Publication Manual provides a listing of many mathematical variables and terms that commonly appear in APA Style papers see Table 4.
The table below excerpts some of the most common statistics, showing their written-out and abbreviated forms in both the singular and the plural. Following that, we discuss the ins and outs of using them in an APA Style paper. The means and standard deviations are reported in Table 1. Posted by Chelsea Lee at 2: Combs, and Rebecca K. For the past several years, we have conducted research to identify the most common challenges to writers.
We were pleased to be asked to describe our work in this guest blog post. We have also served as reviewers and editorial board members of numerous journals. Many of you are probably wondering what error reached Number 1 in our Top 60 list.
Well, the most common APA Style error is the incorrect use of numbers. Even though we examined manuscripts written by authors who used the fifth edition of the APA Publication Manual because the sixth edition of the APA manual is so new , all of the APA Style rules violated still apply in the sixth edition. Falling into this category are a numbers expressed in numerals APA, , section 4. The Top 10 errors we discovered are. Incorrect use of numbers 2.
Incorrect use of hyphenation 3. Incorrect use of et al.
Write out the full date in this order: month day, year. Example: Spencer LaMair was born October 3, If you do not wish to include the day, use this order: month year.
According to the APA manual, writers should only include full dates in citations and references for three kinds of sources: personal communication, daily or weekly periodicals and Web-based sources with frequent dated posts, like blogs.
Frequently Asked Questions About APA Style ® APA's Publication Manual, 6th Edition, provides complete style guidelines and should be consulted first in all matters concerning APA Style ®, but these FAQs will help clarify frequent areas of confusion. APA Citation Style Guide: Step 2- Date This APA Citation Style Guide provides practical advice for citing sources, following the guidelines set forth in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition).
The style guide of The American Psychological Association, or APA, is used in academic and professional writing across several disciplines including the social sciences, business and nursing. Properly citing and referencing works in APA style assures continuity; grants credibility to . MLA style is used for languages and literature, APA is used for science and Chicago is used for the humanities. When including a date in the text of your paper, you must follow the guidelines for the style appropriate to your subject.