Your body needs to also refute objections or other points of view. Make a final point which tells the reader what to think or do. This strategy that you feel strongly about and when you feel you have a good chance of convincing your audience to agree with you. Your audience may be uninformed, or they may not have a strong opinion. Your job is to make them care about the topic and agree with your position. Here is the basic outline of a classical argument paper:.
Rogerian argument strategy attempts to persuade by finding points of compromise and agreement. It is an appropriate technique to use in highly polarized debates, but you must be sincere about willingness to compromise and change your point of view for the reader to take you seriously. Qualities of this strategy:. Toulmin is another strategy to use in a highly charged debate. Instead of attempting to appeal to commonalities, however, this strategy attempts to use clear logic and careful qualifiers to limit the argument to things that can be agreed upon.
It uses this format:. For instructions and examples on easy ways to write a good thesis statement for an argument essay see: For help in writing excellent topic sentences see: How do I conclude my thesis? My most popular article, Easy Sentence Starters, http: What you need to do is to think about how each sentence relates to the other ideas and choosing the appropriate transition adding, comparing, contrasting, or sequence. I have been teaching my students how to add headings to all of their essays over the past five years because I think most of their writing for their careers will be in online environments.
As anyone who does a Google search knows, being able to scan the headings of an article is very helpful so that you can figure out whether that article answers the question you are asking. Additionally, scanning headings if they are written correctly allows you to understand the main point of the article quickly and also to find the part you are most interested in reading.
You can make headings by making a short version of your topic sentence in each paragraph. Generally, the shorter, the better. What I have found is that when my students use headings in their papers, it helps them to actually organize and write their information more clearly because making the headings helps them to realize their main points.
If you've done a good job on your headings, a person should be able to read the title of your paper and all the headings and have a good grasp on what your article is about. The easiest way to find a good title is to use a short version of the question.
The second way is to make a statement which shows your point of view. If you chose the second one, you might want to make the language more dramatic to showcase your point of view. Here are some samples using the topic of diet and obesity:.
The best sort of introduction to an emotional issue like abortion is a story. If possible, I suggest a real story, but it could also be a made-up story, which I call a "typical scenario" which would explain the problem and make it vivid for the reader.
In this issue, it could be the story of a woman who finds herself in a crisis pregnancy. End the story with the question of your essay. Here are some possible questions:. You don't actually have to read the book because she writes on her blog about this issue also. What I like about her work is that she takes the issue in a different direction by interviewing many women who have had abortions to find out what they really thought at the time that they were facing this crucial decision and how their decision affected them afterward.
To get facts and statistics, you can go to the U. Department of Education website and look up the information you'd like to know. You can look up information from other countries on the Education sections of their government websites. If you want comparison information, you may need to go to an outside source like a non-profit which compares countries such as the Pew Research Center: Both ways can be appropriate.
What is most important is that you don't just "drop" the quote on the audience and expect them to understand the point and relevance of your quotation. Use the quotation to make a point and explain why you are using it.
Argumentative writing is trying to persuade someone about your point of view. It is not really like having an argument or fighting with someone. Instead, the idea is that you would present your point of view on the subject in a way that makes other people think you are right, or at least that you have good reasons for believing the way you do.
Argumentative writing is usually done for the following 5 types of claims:. Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.
I am so grateful for this work. I believe as much as it has helped me,so will it help others. This artical was really helpful for me because it shows the whole technique how to write an argumentative essay.
In fact, everyone now could write one with such an ease and confidence. This was very helpful. Thank you for this great guide for me. Also for my notes for my writing test. Hi Judith, I'm also a trained academic writer who has become more interested in popular writing. Some of the instructors that I work with have students write a paper in a particular style, but I prefer to view all of the argumentative techniques as part of our "bag of tricks.
Consider what they know and what they believe, including any "false beliefs" that they may hold about your subject. Then think about what it is that you actually want them to think, do, or believe after reading your work.
Then look at the different strategies and decide which ones might work to convince that audience best. I have several different articles on persuasion that you might want to look at for ideas and examples. Sisila-I wish you all the best. I have about articles on Hubpages about writing.
I encourage you to keep on learning! English is my second language and struggling with essay writing and an argument essay, I find your advise but time is very short for my assessment test tomorrow.
I will try my best to focus on your advise and see if I can pass on this level for my future study. Many thanks for this very helpful article about argument essay. Miranda--I'm so glad this article has helped you. It really comes from my experience in teaching students to write rather than from a textbook. My students have taught me a lot!
Much luck to you on your courses. Thank you for a really great hub! It's now officially on my 'favourites' bar. I have to do a lot of argument essays at the moment for my course, and I sometimes have a tricky time working out how to structure them - this hub is going to help me so much with making my arguments clearer. Honestly, Dragos--often the best way to get started is just to write down everything you know, then write down questions that occur to you.
If you are doing a research paper, you can then start gathering information based on your questions. I often just start by Googling some of the questions. Often you won't come up with research you can use in your paper, but it can jog you into having some good ideas. In an argument essay, what you really need is:. I pretty much know what has to go in an essay but I'm having a hard time planning my thoughts and writing down ideas on a topic.
I am so happy to see what you have brought to us! I hope everyone who is sittin' around doin' nothin' and complaining about everything will discover these HubPages and join in on what was started during the golden ages of America. Thanks so much for reading! I work hard to try to make the process as easy as possible. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
Finding Ideas to Write About Argument essay topics can be found everywhere. Chances are, you will hear someone trying to persuade another person to believe in their claim about: How important is it? What should we do about it? Stuck for an idea? Check out my Easy Argument Topics List. Is it true or not? What does it really mean? What is the cause? What are the effects? How to Write Your Thesis.
Does divorce cause serious problems for the children? You can mix and match these ideas for your essay. In your paper, you will need to do the following Interest the reader in the situation and make them think it is worth learning more about. Explain the controversy or problem clearly. Explain the sides of the debate. Tell them your side. Convince them that your side is the best one to take.
Refute any objections they may be thinking about as they read. Urge the reader to adopt our point of view to do, think or believe something.
Here are some tips: Use the title to present your point of view. Often the title can be a question. Think about your audience—what aspects of this issue would most interest or convince them? Check out the introduction and conclusion chart for creative ways to introduce your paper. Sample Argumentative Essay Outline. Learn the basic features of an argumentative essay. Argumentative essays have some basic features that you should include in your essay.
In general, argumentative essays require you to support the argument you are making using logic and support from your research. You should also be sure to include in your argumentative essay: While most argumentative essays share these basic features, your assignment might have some special requirements or guidelines.
Therefore, it is important to make sure that you understand your assignment before you get started. As soon as your teacher assigns the paper, read the guidelines carefully and highlight anything that you do not understand. Make sure that you understand how to cite your sources for the paper and how to use the documentation style your teacher prefers.
It is better to ask and make sure that you understand than to do the assignment wrong and get a bad grade. Generate ideas for your argumentative essay. It is important to take time to explore your ideas before you choose a topic and start your paper. Take some time to explore your ideas and get some things down on paper by using an invention activity. Invention activities like listing, freewriting, clustering, and questioning can help you to develop ideas for your argumentative essay.
Expand those lists by adding more ideas or by using another prewriting activity. When you are done, review what you have written and highlight or underline the most useful information. Repeat the freewriting exercise using the passages you underlined as a starting point. You can repeat this exercise multiple times to continue to refine and develop your ideas. Then draw three or more lines extending from the circle.
Write a corresponding idea at the end of each of these lines. Continue developing your cluster until you have explored as many connections as you can. Respond to each question in as much detail as you can. Think about how you will incorporate ethos, pathos, and logos. An argumentative essay requires you to demonstrate your understanding of three basic rhetorical concepts: You will need to be aware of these concepts as you write your paper and demonstrate your knowledge of them through your writing.
To convince your readers that your argument is valid, you need to convince them that you are trustworthy. You can accomplish this goal by presenting yourself as confident, fair, and approachable. You can achieve these objectives by avoiding wishy-washy statements, presenting information in an unbiased manner, and identifying common ground between yourself and your readers including the ones that may disagree with you.
Pathos refers to your use of emotional appeals. Emotional appeals have a place in argumentative writing, but overuse of them may lead a reader to reject your argument. Make sure that your use of emotional appeals is minimal and appropriate. You can also invoke pathos by providing relevant examples that evoke an emotional response in your readers and using figurative language such as metaphors to help your readers understand and sympathize with your point of view.
Logos refers to your use of logic, reasoning, and sequencing. This means setting up your argument in a way that uses logic to achieve your desired endpoint or reaction, often through inductive and deductive reasoning. Develop your tentative thesis. Once you have developed your ideas for your argumentative essay, you should be ready to write a tentative thesis statement. In other words, the tentative thesis statement is not set in stone. Effective thesis statements let readers know what the main focus of a paper is going to be.
For an argumentative essay, the thesis should state an arguable claim. A thesis should not be more than one sentence in length. The end of the first paragraph is the traditional place to provide your thesis in an academic essay.
Make sure your thesis is arguable. Your thesis should express a clear position on your topic that can be supported using evidence from your sources. Do not state facts or matters of taste. For example, something like "George Washington was the first president of the United States," would not be a good thesis because it states a fact.
Likewise, "Die Hard is a great movie," would not work because it expresses a matter of taste. There are many possibilities for a counter argument, which makes this topic arguable. Make sure your thesis provides enough detail.
In addition to having a thesis that is arguable, you should also include some details about why you hold the position. In other words, you should avoid simply saying that something is bad and should be changed and provide a bit of detail about why it is bad and should be changed.
Who would benefit if it was changed? Providing this detail gives readers a good sense of what the rest of the paper will discuss. Your thesis should tell your reader why your argument matters, and for whom.
Develop a rough outline based on your research notes. Writing an outline before you begin drafting your argumentative essay will help you to organize your information more effectively. You can make your outline as detailed or as scant as you want. Just keep in mind that the more detail you include in your outline, the more material you will have ready to put into your paper. For example, part 1 might be your introduction, which could then be broken into three sub-parts: Generate key terms and phrases to help you with your research.
As you develop key terms, keep your topic and your position in mind. For example, some relevant key terms and phrases for a paper on lowering the drinking age to 18 might be: Find appropriate secondary sources for your argumentative essay. In order to find support for your argument, you will need to gather a variety of sources. See your assignment guidelines or ask your instructor if you have questions about what types of sources are appropriate for your assignment. Books, articles from scholarly journals, magazine articles, newspaper articles, and trustworthy websites are some sources that you might consider using.
These databases provide you with free access to articles and other resources that you cannot usually gain access to by using a search engine. Evaluate your sources to determine their credibility. Use trustworthy sources only in your argumentative essay, otherwise you will damage your own credibility as an author. There are several things that you will need to consider in order to determine whether or not a source is trustworthy.
The credentials should indicate something about why this person is qualified to speak as an authority on the subject. For example, an article about a medical condition will be more trustworthy if the author is a medical doctor. If you find a source where no author is listed or the author does not have any credentials, then this source may not be trustworthy.
If the author has provided few or no sources, then this source may not be trustworthy. How often does the tone indicate a strong preference for one side of the argument? If these are regular occurrences in the source, then it may not be a good choice. Noting the publication date is especially important for scientific subjects, since new technologies and techniques have made some earlier findings irrelevant. If the information that this author presents contradicts one of your trustworthy sources, then it might not be a good source to use in your paper.
Once you have gathered all of your sources, you will need to read them. Make sure that you read your sources very carefully and that you stay focused on your topic as you read. Read the sources multiple times if necessary and make sure that you fully understand what each source is about. You should be able to summarize the source in your own words and generate a response to the source. To be certain that you understand your sources and that you are capable of responding to each of them, try writing a paragraph summary and response after you finish each one.
Some people find keeping notecards on their sources to be a helpful way of organizing their ideas about each one. Give yourself plenty of time to read your sources and understand what they are saying. Take notes while you read your sources. Highlight and underline significant passages so that you can easily come back to them. As you read, you should also pull any significant information from your sources by jotting the information down in a notebook.
Even accidental plagiarism may result in a failing grade on a paper. Begin your essay with an engaging sentence that gets right into your topic. Your introduction should immediately begin discussing your topic. Think about what you will discuss in your essay to help you determine what you should include in your introduction. Keep in mind that your introduction should identify the main idea of your argumentative essay and act as a preview to your essay.
Provide background information to help guide your readers. Providing adequate background information or context will help to guide your readers through your essay. Think about what your readers will need to know in order to understand the rest of your essay and provide this information in your first paragraph. This information will vary depending on your argument topic. Tell your readers about this problem in more detail so that they will begin to see why something needs to change.
Keep in mind that your background information in the first paragraph should lead up to your thesis statement.
Types of Papers: Argument/Argumentative While some teachers consider persuasive papers and argument papers to be basically the same thing, it’s usually safe to assume that an argument paper presents a stronger claim—possibly to a more resistant audience.
Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument.
Argument Essay #4. Click Here to View Essay "A Deadly Tradition" (PDF Document) Sample Argument Essay #5. Click Here to View Essay "Society Begins at Home" (PDF Document) Sample Argument Essay #6. An argument essay, as with all essays, should contain three parts: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The length of paragraphs in these parts will vary depending on the length of your essay assignment.
Sep 05, · Argument: makes arguments to support thesis and gives evidence (largest section of paper—the main body) Refutation: shows why opposing arguments are not true or valid Conclusion: Summarizes arguments, suggests solution and ties into the introduction or exswatgd.cfs: An argumentative essay requires you to decide on a topic and take a position on it. You'll need to back up your viewpoint with well-researched facts and information as well. One of the hardest parts is deciding which topic to write about, but there are plenty of ideas available to get you started.