According to a study done by Kent and Giles , student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Head to our homepage to learn more. Click here to learn more about crediting work. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project.
They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like.
The format for citations varies based on the source type, but some citations use this general format:. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format:.
If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, such as Citation Machine, the names of the authors will format properly for you.
Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n. If using Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically.
When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.
In this citation style, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. If you are using Citation Machine, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher.
It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Other common terms, such as Inc. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title.
The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews , 11 9 , After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.
When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. If using Citation Machine to develop your citation, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI.
Citation Machine will properly cite your online sources for you. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. Author Last name, First initial.
Last name, First initial. The race between education and technology. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums. Last name of chapter author, First initial. Last name of Editor Ed. The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library.
Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. Your citations will automatically format properly for you. Author Last Name, First initial. Title of work [E-reader version]. The Brooklyn follies [Nook version].
Citation Machine formats your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Title of Periodical, Volume Issue , page range. The decline of war. International Studies Review, 15 3 , Science, , If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator will cite your sources automatically for you. Author's Last name, First initial. Year, Month Day Published. Title of Newspaper, page range. First passengers ride monster jet.
The Salt Lake Tribune, p. Year, Month Date Published. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. College athletes want cut of action. Title of Magazine, Volume Issue , page range. National Geographic Magazine , 6 , Year, Month, Date of blog post.
Title of blog post [Blog post]. EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Writer Last Name, First initial. Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode].
City, State of original channel: Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. Executive producer , House of cards. Producer Last Name, First initial. Title of film [Motion picture]. The emperor strikes back [Motion picture]. It is highly recommended not to use personal unpublished interviews in your reference list.
Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. Here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview:. Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films.
Last Name, First initial. Last name [Format of interview]. If you are planning on using Citation Machine, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. This citation style is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavioral and social sciences, not just psychology.
There are other citation formats and styles such as MLA and Chicago, but this one is most popular in the science fields. Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and how to properly cite sources.
For more information, please consult the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed. We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the authors of the work you used to help you with your own research. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used.
To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work. Also, read up on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of citations. In-text citations are found in the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the full citations of all sources used in a project. Depending on the types of sources you used for your project, the structure for each citation may look different.
There is a certain format, or structure, for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate citation structure for your sources. Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of in-text citations and reference citations.
When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it. Each source used to help with the gathering of information for your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project. The structure for each citation is based on the type of source used.
Scroll down to see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial.
End this information with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. Our free citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title followed by the year in parentheses. When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed.
See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. For periodicals, include the month and day as well. If no date is available, place n. Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well.
Place this information in italics. End it with a period. For articles and chapter titles: Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the title in capitalization form, with each important word starting with a capital letter.
If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description in brackets directly after the title.
Only capitalize the first letter. A state of trance [Audio file]. For books and sources that are not periodicals, give the city and state or city and country if outside of the U. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals, place the volume number after the title. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it.
Afterwards, include page numbers. The names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. This stands for Direct Object Identifier. A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a unique string of numbers and letters assigned by a registration agency.
The DOI is used to identify and provide a permanent link to its location on the internet. The DOI is assigned when an article is published and made electronically. Do not place a period after the DOI number.
Open Praxis, 8 2 , Looking for an APA formatter? Title of work [E-reader version]. Investment in early childhood development: Last name of Editor Ed. Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. Year, Month Day published. Title of article or page. The tale of two Flaccos. Teen posed as doctor at West Palm Beach hospital: Periodical Title, Volume Issue , pp. The changing of teacher education special education.
Teacher Education and Special Education: Title of Journal, volume number issue number , page range. Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing.
Year, Month Day of Publication. Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, p. The New York Times, Retrieved from http: Year, Month of publication. Magazine Title, Volume Issue , page range. Magazine Title, Volume Issue. Should they stay or should they go? Check out the other parts of the website before leaving it out of the citation.
Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Pulp fiction [Motion picture]. Year, Month Day of posting. Title of YouTube video [Video file].
If the name of the individual who posted the YouTube video is not available, begin the citation with the user name and do not place this information in brackets.
Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free.
Looking to format your paper in Chicago style and not sure where to start? Our guide provides everything you need! Learn the basics and fundamentals to creating citations in Chicago format. With numerous examples and visuals, you’ll .
APA Format Guide to help you create your APA citations. Includes examples of in-text and reference list citations and APA paper format guidelines. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
Well, Cite This For Me’s APA citation generator is here to help you - now you can create in-text citations and reference lists in the APA . You can use the Bibliography Worksheet to help you, just print out a few copies and take them with you to the library. As you find a source, write in all of the necessary information. As you find a source, write in all of the necessary information.