Such a project should examine the reasons for the failure or success of restraining orders. For the poverty theme, you can research such topics as whether an impoverished circumstance indicates a greater likelihood of criminal activity.
If it does, you can research additional factors that can either increase or decrease that likelihood in individual instances. Examples of such factors include employment potential, population density and family background. The subcultures theme within criminology might suggest research projects such as whether those of common ethnic backgrounds maintaining indigenous practices can decrease or increase likelihood of criminal conduct in comparison to other ethnic groups with differing values.
Peer groups among school age children also quality as a subculture, perhaps suggesting a research project about, for example, how subcultures within school communities affect the likelihood of bullying behavior.
The incarceration theme, particularly consequences of incarceration, could prompt a research project on the internal value system that operates in prison environments. Prison populations overall regard certain particularly heinous crimes as so objectionable that the perpetrator becomes unfit for survival. A research project could examine the consequences within a prison setting for those guilty of pedophilia or the murder of a pregnant spouse, for example. The consequences of incarceration in terms of release and reentry into society affords another research topic: Her consumer print and online articles include product descriptions for TDMonthly Online, book reviews for Catholic News Service, consumer reports for Consumer Search and works for various other publications.
The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. Criminology examines many factors that influence participation in criminal conduct. Deterrence Within the deterrence theme, consider a topic such as the effectiveness or lack thereof of one or more types of deterrence society currently applies.
Poverty For the poverty theme, you can research such topics as whether an impoverished circumstance indicates a greater likelihood of criminal activity. The threat of violence is what distinguishes robbery from the lesser offense of theft.
Aggravated assault refers to an unlawful attack by one person on another for the purpose of inflicting severe bodily injury. Among Western industrialized nations, the United States long has been considered a particularly violent and crime-ridden society. This survey notwithstanding, the United States continues to have rates of murder and other serious violent crimes that vastly exceed those of other high-income nations.
The term white-collar crime was coined by Edwin Sutherland, former president of the American Sociological Association. In his presidential address Sutherland discussed persons of the upper socioeconomic class whose criminal behavior is dealt with much less severely than that of the lower socioeconomic classes Sutherland These more recent definitions of white-collar crime usually contain some or all of the following elements: Criminologists have also begun to recognize corporate crime as a distinct form of white-collar crime, in which the immediate benefits of the criminal behavior go to a corporation rather than to any particular individual.
Similarly, about 16, people are murdered each year in the United States, but far more people die as the result of white-collar criminal activities. For example, more than , people die each year in the United States because of neglect of worker-safety requirements, on-the-job accidents, and exposure to hazardous materials in the workplace Reiman Organized crime refers to criminal enterprises that specialize in vice crimes such as gambling, prostitution, drug operations, and other correlated illegal activities, including money laundering and racketeering.
The origin of organized crime in the United States is often traced to national Prohibition in the s Brown et al. The controversial federal ban on alcoholic beverages brought about by the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act created opportunities for criminal syndicates to flourish by illegally supplying liquor; later they were able to expand their enterprises into vice and other illicit activities.
Victimless crime refers to illicit behaviors in which the participants do not recognize that anyone involved in the illegal transaction is directly victimized by the deed. Examples of victimless crimes include prostitution, pornography, illegal gambling, and drug use. Victimless crime is a contentious label because, while none of the parties sees themselves as victims, many people argue that society itself is harmed by the prohibited behaviors.
For example, it is argued that illegal drug use drives up healthcare costs for everyone, destabilizes families and communities, drains worker productivity, and leads to a number of additional social problems. Further, a meta-analysis of North American studies on prostitution found that prostitutes are very likely to become victims of violence during the course of their work Farley and Kelley In contrast, other theorists argue that victimless crimes should not be considered crimes at all.
In support of these latter claims, they highlight the variations in prohibitions from state to state and country to country, and societal ambivalence toward many of the prohibited activities. Toward this last point, in an estimated Critics of the criminalization of these behaviors also refer to substances such as alcohol and tobacco that are legally available but cause greater social harm than illicit substances.
Perhaps the most understudied area of criminology is the role society plays in fostering certain types of crime, such as domestic abuse, hate crime, and sexual assault. Over the past century most societies have changed for the better with regard to recognizing all people as equals irrespective of characteristics such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and religion. However, the extensive histories of inequality and violence have undoubtedly shaped how crimes are defined, and have also played a role in the types of crimes prevalent in any given society.
For example, many theorists have argued that the relatively high rates of serious violent crime in the United States can be traced to the culture of violence produced during its particularly hostile settlement: African slavery, Native American genocide, and warfare related to Manifest Destiny all set the stage for a future mired by violence.
Rape presents another example of the social production of crime. For much of world history, patriarchy has been a primary principle around which societies have been structured.
Many theorists have argued that this history of socially constructed male supremacy is strongly correlated with rates of male-on-female sexual assault and has shaped how sexual assault has been defined over time. Only in the latter part of the twentieth century did U. Tolerance for rape in marriage, as well as rape laws that historically have protected the property interests of men over the personal safety of women, may partially explain why rape is so prevalent: This figure does not reflect the estimated , unre-ported forcible rapes committed against women each year in the United States, nor does it capture lesser-degree sexual assaults that do not meet the reporting criteria required for a charge of forcible rape.
Contrary to the efforts of hard-line positivist criminologists who seek to identify biological traits that predispose people to criminal behavior, and rational-choice theorists who suggest people commit crimes of their own free will, the consensus among most criminologists is that sociological factors play a significant role in producing criminal behavior. Criminological research has shown that there is no one socioeconomic factor that has proved an accurate predictor of criminal behavior.
However, there are some variables that seem to affect the likelihood, volume, and type of crimes that occur in particular countries, regions, and communities. For traditional street crimes, socioeconomic variables such as median income, educational attainment and access to education, religion, family conditions e.
Population density and the degree of urbanization, the concentration of youth in a community, community stability e. Of all of these links, the correlation between alcohol and drug use and crime receives the greatest attention from both academicians and policymakers. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 35 to 40 percent of all convicted offenders under the jurisdiction of U. Alcohol use is widespread among those convicted of public-order crimes, the most common type of offense among those in jail or on probation.
Among violent offenders, about 40 percent of probationers, local jail inmates, and state prisoners, as well as 20 percent of federal prison inmates, were estimated to have been drinking when they committed the crime for which they were sentenced. Comparatively, in a recent survey of jail inmates nearly 30 percent reported drug use at the time they committed their offense, and an estimated 16 percent of convicted jail inmates committed their offenses to get money for drugs.
According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 40 percent of adults who were on parole, probation, or some other form of supervised release from jail were classified as drug dependents or drug abusers, compared to 9 percent of the general U.
Example criminal justice research papers on these topics have been designed to serve as sources of model papers for most criminological topics. These research papers were written by several well-known discipline figures and emerging younger scholars who provide authoritative overviews coupled with insightful discussion that will quickly .
Research within librarian-selected research topics on Criminology and Crime from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more.
These are criminology research paper topics on the self-control theory of crime. With them you will discover the full multitude of ways you can take your research paper. Full-text balanced articles. Look for the "Subject", "Browse", "Pro/Con" and "Need a Topic" Indexes.
Focus your research on what a career in criminology entails. You could explain the type of schooling, background and work experience one needs in order to become a criminologist. You may also want to interview or shadow people in this career to get a better idea of what a typical day, week or month is like for them. 10 Great Criminology Topics for Research Papers Criminology deals with the causes, nature, consequences, and control of criminal behavior. When you have to write a research paper on the topic, you will need to find one that is relevant.