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❶Tremendous power imbalances between an organization and its employees enables the employer to "legitimately exercise" power e.

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This event caused worldwide devastation due to the situation itself, and because it uncovered the raw truth behind bullying. In the same time frame, bullying took another negative turn. With easy access to the internet, many teens have started using cyber space as a play ground for bullying.

As more teens have resorted to using cell phones and social networks to communicate, cyber bullying has become a major issue. Presently, cyber bullying is on the rise due to social networks such as facebook and twitter where information can travel in seconds to a countless number of people.

In response to these matters the federal government has created laws to crack down on these behaviors. To greatly lower school violence, the government has to create policies that hold bullies accountable and support victims. Linking school funding to school safety laws is an effective way to ensure schools are becoming safer for students.

It took many years for the term to be identified for the serious problems it presents. Due to researchers like Dan Olweus, gaining true understanding of bullying is now possible. Educators have been able to gain insights of these issues so they can help stop them from occurring. Indeed, with the growth of technology bullying will be difficult to track and school administrators will have to stay current as electronics continue to change. It is difficult to determine what the future of bullying will be, yet as the government continues to mandate school safety laws and begins to strictly hold bullies accountable for their actions, schools will become a safer place for children.

Making School Bully Laws Matter. Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol. Posted by robin tamietti at 8: Orlando Di Gregorio March 19, at Gudeg Lalas January 28, at 4: Damian H December 1, at 1: Tremendous power imbalances between an organization and its employees enables the employer to "legitimately exercise" power e. Although the terminology of bullying traditionally implies an interpersonal relationship between the perpetrator and target, organizations' or other collectives' actions can constitute bullying both by definition and in their impacts on targets.

However, while defining bullying as an interpersonal phenomenon is considered legitimate, classifying incidences of employer exploitation, retaliation, or other abuses of power against an employee as a form of bullying is often not taken as seriously. Bullying is seen to be prevalent in organizations where employees and managers feel that they have the support, or at least the implicit blessing of senior managers to carry on their abusive and bullying behaviour.

When bullying happens at the highest levels, the effects may be far reaching. People may be bullied irrespective of their organizational status or rank, including senior managers, which indicates the possibility of a negative domino effect, where bullying may cascade downwards, as the targeted supervisors might offload their own aggression onto their subordinates.

In such situations, a bullying scenario in the boardroom may actually threaten the productivity of the entire organisation. Research investigating the acceptability of the bullying behaviour across different cultures e. One's culture affects the perception of the acceptable behaviour. One's national background also influences the prevalence of workplace bullying Harvey et al.

Humane orientation is negatively associated with the acceptability of bullying for WRB Work related bullying. Performance orientation is positively associated with the acceptance of bullying. Future orientation is negatively associated with the acceptability of bullying.

A culture of femininity suggests that individuals who live and work in this kind of culture tend to value interpersonal relationships to a greater degree. Three broad dimensions have been mentioned in relation to workplace bullying: In Confucian Asia, which has a higher performance orientation than Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, bullying may be seen as an acceptable price to pay for performance.

The value Latin America holds for personal connections with employees and the higher humane orientation of Sub-Saharan Africa may help to explain their distaste for bullying. A culture of individualism in the US implies competition, which may increase the likelihood of workplace bullying situations. Ashforth discussed potentially destructive sides of leadership and identified what he referred to as petty tyrants , i.

An authoritarian style of leadership may create a climate of fear, where there is little or no room for dialogue and where complaining may be considered futile. In a study of public-sector union members, approximately one in five workers reported having considered leaving the workplace as a result of witnessing bullying taking place.

Rayner explained these figures by pointing to the presence of a climate of fear in which employees considered reporting to be unsafe, where bullies had "got away with it" previously despite management knowing of the presence of bullying.

The workplace bully is often expert at knowing how to work the system. They can spout all the current management buzzwords about supportive management but basically use it as a cover. By keeping their abusive behaviour hidden, any charges made by individuals about his or her bullying will always come down to your word against his.

They may have a kiss up kick down personality, wherein they are always highly cooperative, respectful, and caring when talking to upper management but the opposite when it comes to their relationship with those whom they supervise. Often, a workplace bully will have mastered kiss up kick down tactics that hide their abusive side from superiors who review their performance. As a consequence of this kiss up kick down strategy: Flight is a legitimate and valid response to bullying.

It is very common, especially in organizations in which upper management cannot or will not deal with the bullying. In hard economic times, however, flight may not be an option, and fighting may be the only choice.

Fighting the bullying can require near heroic action, especially if the bullying targets just one or two individuals. It can also be a difficult challenge. There are some times when confrontation is called for.

First, there is always a chance that the bully boss is labouring under the impression that this is the way to get things done and does not recognize the havoc being wrought on subordinates. With some variations, the following typology of workplace bullying behaviours has been adopted by a number of academic researchers. The typology uses five different categories. Research by the Workplace Bullying Institute, suggests that the following are the 25 most common workplace bullying tactics: According to Bassman, common abusive workplace behaviours are: According to Hoel and Cooper , common abusive workplace behaviours are: Abusive cyberbullying in the workplace can have serious socioeconomic and psychological consequences on the victim.

Workplace cyberbullying can lead to sick leave due to depression which in turn can lead to loss of profits for the organisation. Several aspects of academia, such as the generally decentralized nature of academic institutions [50] [51] and the particular recruitment and career procedures, [52] lend themselves to the practice of bullying and discourage its reporting and mitigation.

Bullying has been identified as prominent in blue collar jobs including on the oil rigs, and in mechanical areas and machine shops, warehouses and factories. It is thought that intimidation and fear of retribution cause decreased incident reports, which, in the socioeconomic and cultural milieu of such industries, would likely lead to a vicious circle. This is often used in combination with manipulation and coercion of facts to gain favour among higher ranking administrators.

A culture of bullying is common in information technology IT , leading to high sickness rates, low morale , poor productivity and high staff turnover. Bullying in the medical profession is common, particularly of student or trainee doctors. It is thought that this is at least in part an outcome of conservative traditional hierarchical structures and teaching methods in the medical profession which may result in a bullying cycle. Bullying has been identified as being particularly prevalent in the nursing profession although the reasons are not clear.

It is thought that relational aggression psychological aspects of bullying such as gossiping and intimidation are relevant. Relational aggression has been studied amongst girls but not so much amongst adult women. School teachers are commonly the subject of bullying but they are also sometimes the originators of bullying within a school environment. Bullying in the legal profession is believed to be more common than in some other professions. It is believed that its adversarial, hierarchical tradition contributes towards this.

Bullying exists to varying degrees in the military of some countries, often involving various forms of hazing or abuse by higher members of the military hierarchy. Bullying can be common in volunteering settings, for example one study found bullying to be the most significant factor of complaints amongst volunteers.

Tim Field suggested that workplace bullying takes these forms: Adult bullying can come in an assortment of forms. There are about five distinctive types of adult bullies. A narcissistic bully is described as a self-centred person whose egotism is frail and possesses the need to put others down. An impulsive bully is someone who acts on bullying based on stress or being upset at the moment. A physical bully uses physical injury and the threat of harm to abuse their victims, while a verbal bully uses demeaning and cynicism to debase their victims.

Lastly, a secondary adult bully is portrayed as a person that did not start the initial bullying but participates in afterwards to avoid being bullied themselves "Adult Bullying". Workplace bullying is reported to be far more prevalent than perhaps commonly thought. In such a situation, social interactions and relationships are of great importance to the function of the organizational structure and in pursuing goals.

The emotional consequences of bullying put an organization at risk of losing victimized employees. The workplace in general can be a stressful environment, so a negative way of coping with stress or an inability to do so can be particularly damning. Workplace bullies may have high social intelligence and low emotional intelligence EI.

The combination of high social intelligence and low empathy is conducive to manipulative behaviour, such that Hutchinson describes workplace bullying to be. EI and ethical behaviour among other members of the work team have been shown to have a significant impact on ethical behaviour of nursing teams. Abusive supervision overlaps with workplace bullying in the workplace context.

Abusive supervision differs from related constructs such as supervisor bullying and undermining in that it does not describe the intentions or objectives of the supervisor. A power and control model has been developed for the workplace, divided into the following categories: Workplace mobbing overlaps with workplace bullying. The concept originated from the study of animal behaviour. It concentrates on bullying by a group. Workplace bullying overlaps to some degree with workplace incivility but tends to encompass more intense and typically repeated acts of disregard and rudeness.

Negative spirals of increasing incivility between organizational members can result in bullying, [71] but isolated acts of incivility are not conceptually bullying despite the apparent similarity in their form and content. In case of bullying, the intent of harm is less ambiguous, an unequal balance of power both formal and informal is more salient, and the target of bullying feels threatened, vulnerable and unable to defend himself or herself against negative recurring actions.

In , psychologists Belinda Board and Katarina Fritzon at the University of Surrey , UK, interviewed and gave personality tests to high-level British executives and compared their profiles with those of criminal psychiatric patients at Broadmoor Hospital in the UK. They found that three out of eleven personality disorders were actually more common in executives than in the disturbed criminals. They described these business people as successful psychopaths and the criminals as unsuccessful psychopaths.

According to leading leadership academic Manfred F. Kets de Vries , it seems almost inevitable these days that there will be some personality disorders in a senior management team. Narcissism, lack of self-regulation, lack of remorse and lack of conscience have been identified as traits displayed by bullies.

These traits are shared with psychopaths, indicating that there is some theoretical cross-over between bullies and psychopaths. According to Boddy there are two types of bullying: A corporate psychopath uses instrumental bullying to further his goals of promotion and power as the result of causing confusion and divide and rule.

People with high scores on a psychopathy rating scale are more likely to engage in bullying, crime and drug use than other people. It is thought that this is at least in part an outcome of conservative traditional hierarchical structures and teaching methods in the medical profession, which may result in a bullying cycle.

Even though The American Nurses Association believes that all nursing personnel have the right to work in safe, non-abusive environments, bullying has been identified as being particularly prevalent in the nursing profession although the reasons are not clear.

It is thought that relational aggression psychological aspects of bullying such as gossipping and intimidation are relevant.

Relational aggression has been studied among girls but not so much among adult women. School teachers are commonly the subject of bullying but they are also sometimes the originators of bullying within a school environment. As the verb to bully is defined as simply "forcing one's way aggressively or by intimidation", the term may generally apply to any life experience where one is motivated primarily by intimidation instead of by more positive goals, such as mutually shared interests and benefits.

As such, any figure of authority or power who may use intimidation as a primary means of motivating others, such as a neighborhood "protection racket don", a national dictator, a childhood ring-leader, a terrorist, a terrorist organization, or even a ruthless business CEO, could rightfully be referred to as a bully. According to psychologist Pauline Rennie-Peyton, we each face the possibility of being bullied in any phase of our lives.

Children have been observed bullying anthropomorphic robots designed to assist the elderly. Their attacks start with blocking the robots' paths of movement and then escalate to verbal abuse, hitting and destroying the object. Bullying prevention is the collective effort to prevent, reduce and stop bullying.

Bullying prevention campaigns and events include: Anti-Bullying laws in the U. Bullying is typically ongoing and not isolated behaviour. Common ways that people try to respond, are to try to ignore it, to confront the bullies or to turn to an authority figure to try and address it. Ignoring it often does nothing to stop the bullying continuing, and it can become worse over time. Authority figures can play an important role, such as parents in child or adolescent situations, or supervisors, human-resources staff or parent-bodies in workplace and volunteer settings.

Authority figures can be influential in recognising and stopping bullying behaviour, and creating an environment where it doesn't continue. The word " bully " was first used in the s meaning "sweetheart", applied to either sex, from the Dutch boel "lover, brother", probably diminutive of Middle High German buole "brother", of uncertain origin compare with the German buhle "lover". The meaning deteriorated through the 17th century through "fine fellow", "blusterer", to "harasser of the weak".

This may have been as a connecting sense between "lover" and "ruffian" as in "protector of a prostitute", which was one sense of "bully" though not specifically attested until The verb "to bully" is first attested in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bully disambiguation. For school bullying, see School bullying. This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation.

Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. Bullying and suicide and List of suicides that have been attributed to bullying. Bullying and emotional intelligence. Bullying in the military. Child abuse , Narcissistic parent , and Parental narcissistic abuse. Bullying in information technology. Bullying in the legal profession.

The Power of Bullies and the Plight of Victims". Annual Review of Psychology. Archived from the original on Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Archived PDF from the original on Sexuality Research and Social Policy. Emotional Abuse in the American Workplace. The University of Manchester. Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Annual Review of Law and Social Science. Peer Abuse Know More!: Bullying from a Psychological Perspective. Archived from the original on 14 September Journal Of School Violence: Role of masculinity and moral atmosphere". Psychology of Men and Masculinity.

An examination of self-reported intervention strategy use, moderator effects, and concurrent use of multiple strategies". Teaching and Teacher Education. Bullies and victims in schools: Invitation to the Life Span. Archived from the original on 1 December Retrieved 30 November Schwartz and Gail Pursell Elliott. Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice.

Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools". Those who can't, bully". A Review of Methods and Instruments". International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U. National Library of Medicine. Personality and Individual Differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. To Intervene or Not to Intervene?

Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Paediatrics and Child Health. Forgas; William Von Hippel 13 May Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying. Archived from the original on 3 January A Nationally Representative Cohort Study".

American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved 22 February Brandwatch, Ditch the Label. Check date values in: Involvement of children, teachers and parents in bullying behavior". Journal of Adolescent Health. Differential Association With Depression". Retrieved 14 August

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Bullying must stop, for it is destroying the lives and futures of many innocents, perhaps not killing them, but ruining them. People may end up physically distort Continue reading this essay Continue reading. First of all, bullying is a crime, because of the serious effects it can have on an individual. “And, once robbed of their self-esteem they can suffer from mental and physical problems, drop Persuasive Essay Bullying Sample Author: k_arnold Created Date.

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