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❶Media effects studies target either an individual micro-level or an audience aggregate macro-level. With these new variables added to research, it was difficult to isolate media influence that resulted in any media effects to an audience's cognition, attitude and behavior.

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This involves the use of audio equipment such as microphones, recording devices, and loudspeakers. From early beginnings with the invention of the phonograph using purely mechanical techniques, the field has advanced with the invention of electrical recording, the mass production of the 78 record , the magnetic wire recorder followed by the tape recorder , the vinyl LP record.

The invention of the compact cassette in the s, followed by Sony's Walkman , gave a major boost to the mass distribution of music recordings, and the invention of digital recording and the compact disc in brought massive improvements in ruggedness and quality.

The most recent developments have been in digital audio players. An album is a collection of related audio recordings, released together to the public, usually commercially. The term record album originated from the fact that 78 RPM Phonograph disc records were kept together in a book resembling a photo album. The first collection of records to be called an "album" was Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite , release in April as a four-disc set by Odeon records.

A music video also promo is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. Modern music videos were primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings.

Although the origins of music videos go back much further, they came into their own in the s, when Music Television 's format was based on them. In the s, the term "rock video" was often used to describe this form of entertainment, although the term has fallen into disuse.

Music videos can accommodate all styles of filmmaking, including animation , live action films, documentaries , and non-narrative, abstract film. The Internet also known simply as "the Net" or less precisely as "the Web" is a more interactive medium of mass media, and can be briefly described as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol IP.

It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services, such as email , online chat , file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: The World Wide Web is accessible through the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing and others described below.

Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era in which most individuals could have a means of exposure on a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone with a web site has the potential to address a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive.

It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary i. The invention of the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communication is often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as "convergence".

Many authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish in both print and on the web without manual conversion effort. An increasing number of wireless devices with mutually incompatible data and screen formats make it even more difficult to achieve the objective "create once, publish many". The Internet is quickly becoming the center of mass media. Everything is becoming accessible via the internet.

Rather than picking up a newspaper, or watching the 10 o'clock news, people can log onto the internet to get the news they want, when they want it.

For example, many workers listen to the radio through the Internet while sitting at their desk. Even the education system relies on the Internet. Teachers can contact the entire class by sending one e-mail. They may have web pages on which students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes have class blogs in which students are required to post weekly, with students graded on their contributions. Blogging , too, has become a pervasive form of media.

A blog is a website, usually maintained by an individual, with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or interactive media such as images or video.

Entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order, with most recent posts shown on top. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images and other graphics, and links to other blogs, web pages, and related media. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs.

Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art artlog , photographs photoblog , sketchblog, videos vlog , music MP3 blog , audio podcasting are part of a wider network of social media. Microblogging is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts. RSS is a format for syndicating news and the content of news-like sites, including major news sites like Wired , news-oriented community sites like Slashdot , and personal blogs.

It is a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines, and podcasts. An RSS document which is called a "feed" or "web feed" or "channel" contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text. RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with web sites in an automated manner that can be piped into special programs or filtered displays.

A podcast is a series of digital-media files which are distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and computers. The term podcast, like broadcast, can refer either to the series of content itself or to the method by which it is syndicated; the latter is also called podcasting.

The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster. Mobile phones were introduced in Japan in but became a mass media only in when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland. Soon most forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones, tablets and other portable devices, and today the total value of media consumed on mobile vastly exceeds that of internet content, and was worth over 31 billion dollars in source Informa. The mobile media content includes over 8 billion dollars worth of mobile music ringing tones, ringback tones, truetones, MP3 files, karaoke, music videos, music streaming services etc.

In Japan mobile phone books are so popular that five of the ten best-selling printed books were originally released as mobile phone books. Similar to the internet, mobile is also an interactive media , but has far wider reach, with 3. Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also a personal messaging service, but SMS text messaging is used by over 2. Practically all internet services and applications exist or have similar cousins on mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs.

Mobile has several unique benefits which many mobile media pundits claim make mobile a more powerful media than either TV or the internet, starting with mobile being permanently carried and always connected. Mobile has the best audience accuracy and is the only mass media with a built-in payment channel available to every user without any credit cards or PayPal accounts or even an age limit. A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising or purchase by readers.

Magazines are typically published weekly , biweekly , monthly , bimonthly or quarterly , with a date on the cover that is in advance of the date it is actually published.

They are often printed in color on coated paper , and are bound with a soft cover. Magazines fall into two broad categories: In practice, magazines are a subset of periodicals , distinct from those periodicals produced by scientific, artistic, academic or special interest publishers which are subscription-only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, and often have little or no advertising.

A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special interest, most often published daily or weekly.

The most important function of newspapers is to inform the public of significant events. Recent developments on the Internet are posing major threats to its business model, however. Paid circulation is declining in most countries, and advertising revenue, which makes up the bulk of a newspaper's income, is shifting from print to online; some commentators, nevertheless, point out that historically new media such as radio and television did not entirely supplant existing.

The internet has challenged the press as an alternative source of information and opinion but has also provided a new platform for newspaper organizations to reach new audiences. Many commercial advertisers use this form of mass media when advertising in sports stadiums. Tobacco and alcohol manufacturers used billboards and other outdoor media extensively. However, in , the Master Settlement Agreement between the US and the tobacco industries prohibited the billboard advertising of cigarettes.

In a Chicago-based study, Diana Hackbarth and her colleagues revealed how tobacco- and alcohol-based billboards were concentrated in poor neighbourhoods. In other urban centers, alcohol and tobacco billboards were much more concentrated in African-American neighborhoods than in white neighborhoods.

Mass media encompasses much more than just news, although it is sometimes misunderstood in this way. It can be used for various purposes:.

Journalism is the discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying and presenting information regarding current events , trends , issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. News -oriented journalism is sometimes described as the "first rough draft of history" attributed to Phil Graham , because journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines.

While under pressure to be first with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization's standards of accuracy, quality and style.

Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable to the standards of professional journalism. Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image.

Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information — the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers.

With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet , the scope of publishing has expanded to include websites , blogs , and the like. As a business , publishing includes the development, marketing , production , and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works , musical works , software , other works dealing with information. Publication is also important as a legal concept ; 1 as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy, and; 2 as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation ; that is, the alleged libel must have been published.

A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor. In some companies, two or all three of these roles may be combined and indeed, may reside in a single person, especially in the case of shareware. Software publishers often license software from developers with specific limitations, such as a time limit or geographical region.

The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are typically secret. Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid focussing on marketing.

Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified. A YouTuber is anyone who has made their fame from creating and promoting videos on the public video-sharing site, YouTube. Many YouTube celebrities have made a profession from their site through sponsorships, advertisements, product placement, and network support. Media effects are measurable effects that result from media influence or a media message.

Whether that media message has an effect on any of its audience members is contingent on many factors, including audience demographics and psychological characteristics. These effects can be positive or negative, abrupt or gradual, short-term or long-lasting.

Not all effects result in change: Researchers examine an audience after media exposure for changes in cognition, belief systems, and attitudes, as well as emotional, physiological and behavioral effects.

There are several scholarly definitions of media. Bryant and Zillmann defined media effects as "the social, cultural, and psychological impact of communicating via the mass media". Media effects studies have undergone several phases, often corresponding to the development of mass media technologies. From the early 20th century to the s, developing mass media technologies, such as radio and film, were credited with an almost irresistible power to mold an audience's beliefs, cognition and behaviors according to the communicators' will.

This assumption was not based on empirical evidence but on assumptions of human nature. There were two main explanations for this perception of mass media effects. First, mass broadcasting technologies were acquiring a widespread audience, even among average households. People were astonished by the speed of information dissemination, which may have clouded audience perception of any media effects.

Secondly, propaganda techniques were implemented during the war time by several governments as a powerful tool for uniting their people. This propaganda exemplified strong-effect communication. Early media effects research often focused on the power of this propaganda e.

Combing through the technological and social environment, early media effects theories stated that the mass media were all-powerful. Starting in the s, the second phase of media effects studies instituted the importance of empirical research, while introducing the complex nature of media effects due to the idiosyncratic nature of audience individuals. Many other separate studies focused on persuasion effects studies, or the possibilities and usage of planned persuasion in film and other media.

Researchers uncovered mounting empirical evidence of the idiosyncratic nature of media effects on individuals and audiences, identifying numerous intervening variables, such as demographic attributes, social psychological factors, and different media use behaviors. With these new variables added to research, it was difficult to isolate media influence that resulted in any media effects to an audience's cognition, attitude and behavior.

As Berelson summed up in a widely quoted conclusion: Instead, the pre-existing structure of social relationships and cultural contexts were believed to primarily shape or change people's opinions, attitudes and behaviors, and media merely function within these established processes. This complexity had a dampening effect upon media effects studies. Limited media effect theory was challenged by new evidence supporting that mass media messages could indeed lead to measurable social effects.

In the s and s, widespread use of television indicated its unprecedented power on social lives. Meanwhile, researchers also realized that early investigations, relying heavily on psychological models, were narrowly focused on only short-term and immediate effects.

The "stimuli-reaction" model introduced the possibility of profound long-term media effects. The shift from short-term to long-term effect studies marked the renewal of media effects research. More attention was paid to collective cultural patterns, definitions of social reality, ideology and institutional behavior. Though audiences were still considered in control of the selection of media messages they consumed, "the way media select, process and shape content for their own purposes can have a strong influence on how it is received and interpreted and thus on longer-term consequences" Mcquail, In the late s, researchers examined the media's role in shaping social realities, also referred to as "social constructivist" Gamson and Modigliani, First, the media formats images of society in a patterned and predictable way, both in news and entertainment.

Second, audiences construct or derive their perception of actual social reality—and their role in it—by interacting with the media-constructed realities. Individuals in these audiences can control their interaction and interpretation of these media-constructed realities. However, when media messages are the only information source, the audience may implicitly accept the media-constructed reality.

Alternatively, they may choose to derive their social reality from other sources, such as first-hand experience or cultural environment. This phase also added qualitative and ethnographic research methods to existing quantitative and behaviorist research methods.

Additionally, several research projects focused on media effects surrounding media coverage of minority and fringe social movements. As early as the s, research emerged on the effects of individual or group behavior in computer-mediated environments.

Early research examined the social interactions and impressions that CMC partners formed of each other, given the restrictive characteristics of CMC—such as the anonymity or lack of nonverbal auditory or visual cues.

The internet was widely adopted for personal use in the s, further expanding CMC studies. With the emergence of dynamic user-generated content on websites and social media platforms, research results are even more conducive to CMC studies. Therefore, this media use may enhance the friendships. The broad scope of media effects studies creates an organizational challenge. Organizing media effects by their targeted audience type, either on an individual micro-level or an audience aggregate macro-level , is one effective method.

Denis McQuail , a prominent communication theorist, organized effects into a graph. Media effects studies target either an individual micro-level or an audience aggregate macro-level.

Theories that base their observations and conclusions on individual media users rather than on groups, institutions, systems, or society at large. Elaboration likelihood model , Social cognitive theory of mass communication, Framing theory, Priming theory, etc.

Theories that base their observations and conclusions on large social groups, institutions, systems or ideologies. Knowledge gap theory, Risk communication , Public sphere theory in Communication, etc. Denis McQuail , a prominent communication theorist, organized effects into a graph according to the media effect's intentionality planned or unplanned and time duration short-term or long-term.

The following are salient examples of media effects studies which examine media influence on individuals. Individuals often mistakenly believe that they are less susceptible to media effects than others. About fifty percent of the members in a given sample are susceptible to the third-person effect , underestimating their degree of influence. This is a concept derived from a network model of memory used in cognitive psychology. Information is stored in this model as nodes, clustered with related nodes by associated pathways.

If one node is activated, nearby nodes are also activated. This is known as spreading activation. Priming occurs when a node is activated, causing related nodes to stand by for possible activation. Both the intensity and amount of elapsed time from the moment of activation determine the strength and duration of the priming effect. In media effects studies, priming describes how exposure to media can alter an individual's attitudes, behaviors, or beliefs.

Most media violence research , a popular area of discussion in media effects studies, theorizes that exposure to violent acts may prime an individual to behave more aggressively while the activation lingers. Miller and Dollard pioneered social learning theory by their findings that individuals do not need to personally act out a behavior to learn it; they can learn from observation. The effects of media violence upon individuals has many decades of research, starting as early as the s.

Children and adolescents, considered vulnerable media consumers, are often the target of these studies. The most positive effects of mass media include a more informed society. Newspaper circulation was the first mass media content to affect the way people considered their role in society. An informed public translates into an involved public. Newspapers helped to build communities. Mass media took on a new role in the form of radio and television, exposing the general public to sights and sounds they never would have previously had access to.

The negative consequences that came from television include idleness and a correlation to obesity when an individual consumes too much television. Advertising is also implicated as a negative consequence, as depictions of women in advertising create unrealistic role models for young girls.

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Digital media literacy in a global era offers more than using technology to do the things that were done by hand before—such as data or word processing, retrieving information, presenting knowledge, and one-to-one communication—it now allows easy participation in the sophisticated global experiences and networks that our wired world affords. Mass media makes possible the concept of celebrity: without the ability of movies, magazines, and news media to reach across thousands of miles, people could not become famous. In fact, only political and business leaders, as well as the few notorious outlaws, were famous in the past.

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New mass media forms, including the Internet and social media, have proved to be the most dangerous. While social media helps young people learn to network and navigate personal relationships, it also makes it easier to bully others due to the anonymity of the Web. The digital media comprises both Internet and mobile mass communication. Internet media provides many mass media services, such as email, websites, blogs, and internet based radio and television.