Successful resolution of the various life difficulties, leads progressively to hope, trust, and autonomy. Piaget describes the thinking process of four developmental stages. Each of these stages is characterized by unique ways of thinking and therefore determines how adults interact with others. He believed that children actively learn by doing, using the environment to stimulate their thinking.
Doing is a way of becoming. Because children learn best when they can manipulate, use hands-on activities, and make the abstract concrete, counselors may use the developing thinking of children throughout the elementary school years to plan appropriate guidance activities.
Activities such as playing, drawing, using clay or making lists often result in children producing products that reveal their inner thinking. By engaging each other in different types of groups, children become less egocentric in their approach to understanding problems and in the generation of solutions.
Adolescent thinking results in idealistic and utopian thinking in which the individual thinks all is open and available. When approaching problems, the individual looks for solutions that are familiar. If a concrete thinker needs assistance to see other possibilities, a counselor may help by providing a hands-on, product-oriented approach to help the person conceptualize problems.
The counselor needs to be aware of individual thinking levels. When working with children and adolescents, the counselor should facilitate the use of an appropriate activity or technique, which matches the thinking level of the individual. When working with adults, the counselor needs to address issues indicating the appropriate starting points in problem solving and decision-making.
Piaget provides a model useful in determining the thinking level being utilized by an individual. Piaget, who is considered a stage theorist, connected the child development with the environment. He promoted the idea that children set the learning agenda and direct their own growth around the environment around which they grow.
Successful identification of the orientation used by the individual coming for counseling enables the counselor to see how the individual makes meaning of the world. The basic belief of these theories still provides the basis for many hypotheses in counseling. Reviewing existing theories can help counselors better understand normal growth and development and gain insight into what individuals need to do to reach fulfillment in their lives.
Developmental and psychodynamic theories continue to be basis in much contemporary thought and practice. The life-span development approach addresses the basic nature versus nurture debate by allowing for both. Just as our physicals selves are determined by both genetics and lifestyle, so are our emotional selves.
Considering cognitive, biological, and social, and emotional development throughout life would offer perspective, a guideline, and reasonable expectations. Life-span development theories would also provide a useful place to start when offering emotional support to clients. Most of the developmental theorists discussed in class, focused mostly on early or childhood development.
The counselor can further evaluate early behaviors against his or her contemporary observations, giving them a fuller context.
The life-span perspective can easily be linked to what could be considered a sub-category or a category that can be placed inside the life-span cycle. Family of origin and family of choice can be altered and influenced by environmental factors. Other aspects include social background, cultural norms, and even national identity. A counselor can guide a person to examining the correlation between environment and societal attitudes, and then the impact on his or her own development.
Providing a social support such as counseling from a life-span perspective must include physical context. Age is an obvious, but significant, biological concern. Helping an individual understand their current crisis may offer many reassurances, but specifically realizing that every stage of life has an optimal time.
Leadership is conventionally viewed as being vested primarily in the role of the CEO and other top executives Kochan, et al. The CEO is to provide vision and broad strategic irection to the rest of the organization and in doing so shape the culture and values of the enterprise Kochan, et al. The search process for CEOs therefore focuses on identifying individuals in top positions in apparently successful organizations who appear to have these personal attributes Kochan, et al.
A human capital, knowledge-based view of the enterprise envisions leadership as a distributed capability that involves multiple people and groups at all levels of the organization Kochan, et al. To be sure, the CEO and other executives are critical players in leading a process which generates a clear and compelling shared vision for the organization Kochan, et al. However, such action by senior executives is not sufficient unless and until it engages the aspirations and energies of all organizational participants Kochan, et al.
Leadership is hus more than a set of individual traits or abilities; it is a set of capabilities that extends throughout the organization and over time Kochan, et al. Performance in the 21st century organization is a function of the quality of leadership capabilities in action throughout the organization Kochan, et al. Value for Shareholders or Multiple Stakeholders?
This brings us to a fundamental question: What purpose s do organizations serve Kochan, et al. With the rise to prominence of the modern corporation, the answer that dominated American organizations and management education throughout most of the 20th century was that business organizations exist to maximize shareholder value Kochan, et al. This reflects a recognition of the role played by owners who provide and put at risk the critical resource — significant pools of financial capital — needed to build large corporations Kochan, et al.
As a result, the governance structure and processes are seen to be the xclusive domain of the financial owners and their direct agents, the CEO and other top executives Kochan, et al. Knowledge-based organizations depend on employees to invest and put at risk their human capital in joining and remaining with the firm Kochan, et al.
This places human capital in an analogous position in the 21st century organization to that of financial capital in the 20th century corporation Kochan, et al. Thus, employees could claim a legitimate role in shaping the objectives of the organization to be consistent with their interests and values Kochan, et al. Other stakeholders can make similar claims Kochan, et al. Suppliers, for example, are increasingly responsible for critical aspects of product design, inventory management, and other tasks that require long-term partnership agreements Kochan, et al.
Communities have legitimate claims to the social and environmental impacts generated by the products and processes of organizations Kochan, et al.
Viewed one way, these many embedded stakeholder relationships represent complex constraints on organizational flexibility and innovation Kochan, et al. Viewed another way, these same stakeholder relationships constitute an extended enterprise capable of delivering value to the organization and to these many stakeholders in unprecedented ways Murman, et al. The Workforce of the 21st Century One word best captures the contemporary workforce: Diversity Kochan, et al.
A second key word applies to the workforce of tomorrow: Scarcity Kochan, et al. Diversity and its Implications. Today, workers are more diverse in gender, race, ethnicity, age, nationality and culture, just to mention the more obvious and visible features.
The households that workers come from are equally diverse, with less than 20 percent fitting the old image. Work and family decisions are highly interdependent Kochan, et al. Leading firms are recognizing the importance of both the need to attend to demographic diversity and work and family issues Kochan, et al.
Research suggests that most firms have internalized the legal and social responsibilities introduced by the civil rights movement and laws enacted in the s and s Kochan, et al. A More Diverse Pool of Future Leaders The current challenge in managing diversity is to go beyond efforts to change attitudes to focus on building the skills needed to facilitate work in diverse teams and to learn from the variety of backgrounds and knowledge people bring to their jobs Kochan, et al.
This is how the diversity in our contemporary workforce can be used to add value to both workers and their organizations Kochan, et al. Learning Across Cultures People are also highly diverse in the expectations they bring to their work and organizations Kochan, et al.
As survey data and labor market behavior continue to demonstrate, good wages and benefits remain a high priority for all workers Kochan, et al. But these, by and large, are taken as a given — a necessary condition for individuals to consider a prospective job offer Kochan, et al. Beyond these essentials, jobs have to be tailored to the priorities of different groups Kochan, et al. Young workers place highest priority on possibilities for learning and developing their skills; mid-career and mid-life workers value the opportunity to integrate work and family life; and older workers assign highest riority to long-term employment and income security Kochan, et al.
Over 40 percent of those employed actively look at alternative job opportunities on a regular basis and few see it as their responsibility to stay with a given employer for any particular length of time Towers Perrin, The differences between psychoanalytical, cognitive thinking and humanistic behaviour are describing humans as individuals of a collection of hidden impulses that need to be expressed.
Cognitive theorists see the human as a thinker, organizing and adapting experiences so they make sense. The Humanist theorist focus on what the person may become rather than where they are at the present time. From the theories discussed in this paper, it is clear that how complex human development is. No one theory successfully describes human growth and development in all of it complexity. Essay UK - http: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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Medicine essays Miscellaneous essays Psychology essays Religious studies essays Science essays Sociology essays Essays menu. Freud also believed that many emotions were caused by unconcious sexual desires, some of which originated in infancy Eriksons theory was that development resulted from the interaction between inner instincts and outer cultural and social demands:
Human development theories are models intended to account for how and why people become, as they are (Thomas ). Theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behaviour (Schroeder, )/5(16).
Human Development Theories In addition to Freud’s psychodynamic theory there are four other human development philosophies; biological, cognitive, behavioral and systems model. Even though these theories differ they all contain the same basic assumptions.
This essay will discuss some of the theories used to explain human growth and development and discuss the pros and cons of each theory in relation to different life stages and show how each theory can be applied to social work practice. Human development theories Essay Sample. Over the years, there have been dozens of psychologists who have proposed hundreds of different theories regarding human development. These theories are read by educational professionals, who incorporate the parts of the theories that they believe in, into their own personal philosophy.
Human development theories. Human Development Theories. INTRODUCTION. Human development theories are models intended to account for how and why people become, as they are (Thomas ). Theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behaviour (Schroeder, . Theories of Development Essay - Theories of Development There are many branches of psychology. The field of human development is divided into five theory groups. The theory groups are Psychodynamic, Cognitive, Systems, Biological and Behavioral. Each theory group has many contributing theorists.