Liquids are condensed phases, with properties dependent on intermolecular forces, but they retain the ability to flow. Because intermolecular forces are attractive in nature, each liquid molecule is somewhat attracted by all of its neighbor in solution.
The molecules at the top of the solution, however, don't have molecules attracting them from above. This situation causes the surface molecules to be drawn inward, giving rise to the property of surface tension. Surface tension is defined as the energy required to break through that surface. You can see an example of surface tension if you get a bowl of water and try to float a needle on top of that water.
If you just drop the needle in, it sinks; however, if you can place the needle carefully, you can get it to float on the surface. Surface tension increases with the magnitude of intermolecular forces. Thus, water with hydrogen bonding has a higher s urface tension than dimethyl ether containing only weaker dipole-dipole interactions.
Viscosity is defined as a fluid's resistance to flow. Anyone who cooks is likely to know that honey is more viscous than olive oil, which is more viscous than water. Viscosity also increases with intermolecular forces. Stronger intermolecular forces result in molecules that want to "stick together".
Two types of problems that would involve concepts discussed on this page would be to determine the heat absorbed to evaporate a given quantity of a liquid or to determine how much liquid would evaporate to achieve the equilibrium vapor pressure.
For heat of vaporization problems,. Liquids, gases, intermolecular forces. Search Site only in current section. For heat of vaporization problems, You need to know or will solve for the heat of vaporization. The dipole-dipole interaction in HCl is relatively weak; only 3. The covalent bonds between the hydrogen and chlorine atoms in HCl are times as strong. The force of attraction between HCl molecules is so small that hydrogen chloride boils at What would happen if we mixed HCl with argon, which has no dipole moment?
The electrons on an argon atom are distributed homogeneously around the nucleus of the atom. But these electrons are in constant motion. When an argon atom comes close to a polar HCl molecule, the electrons can shift to one side of the nucleus to produce a very small dipole moment that lasts for only an instant. By distorting the distribution of electrons around the argon atom, the polar HCl molecule induces a small dipole moment on this atom, which creates a weak dipole-induced dipole force of attraction between the HCl molecule and the Ar atom.
Neither dipole-dipole nor dipole-induced forces can explain the fact that helium becomes a liquid at temperatures below 4. By itself, a helium atom is perfectly symmetrical. But movement of the electrons around the nuclei of a pair of neighboring helium atoms can become synchronized so that each atom simultaneously obtains an induced dipole moment. These fluctuations in electron density occur constantly, creating an induced dipole-induced dipole force of attraction between pairs of atoms.
As might be expected, this force is relatively weak in helium -- only 0. But atoms or molecules become more polarizable as they become larger because there are more electrons to be polarized.
It has been argued that the primary force of attraction between molecules in solid I 2 and in frozen CCl 4 is induced dipole-induced dipole attraction. General Chemistry Help Homepage. Gen Chem Topic Review. I will have to think about that alot before i can even begin to formulate an answer.
Well i always have too many questions, right now i'm going to be logical and not get carried away. You need to be a member in order to leave a comment. Sign up for a new account in our community. Already have an account? Posted February 19, Share this post Link to post Share on other sites. Posted February 20, Posted December 16, Posted December 17,
Dec 17, · What is the nature of the space between molecules, such as in air in in water? Is it a true vacuum, or is the presence of neutrinos not negligible in considering its properties.
Intermolecular Force is the force of attraction between the atoms or molecules of a matter. Intermolecular Space: Matter is not continuous it is rather discrete i.e. like space filled with balls.
intermolecular fo rces are forces that act betweenstable molecules or between functional groups of macromolecules. Answer: Well the key word is molecule. Answer: Well the key word is molecule. A2A Absolutely nothing. Except for vacuum. Well, you'd think that vacuum is nothing, but it plays an important role in Quantum Mechanics. They're the place from where everything like electrons and positrons and protons are made from.
Intermolecular space is the space between two molecule or atom. In solids it is very little, in liquids is more the solids but less than liquids and in gases its the maximum. Intermolecular forces are forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms, molecules or ions). What happens to the intermolecular spaces when some energy is removed from a gas or liquid it decreases it increases it is not affected or increases and decreases alternatively? By removing energy, what you mean is reducing temperature.