United state's original intent of juvenile justice system has shifted due to a number of reforms aimed at both protecting the "due process of law" rights of youth, and creating an aversion towards jail among the young, these reforms has made the system more comparable to the adult system History of Juvenile Competency Services in Virginia: After a year long study conducted by the Virginia commission on youth the juvenile competency statutes were enacted.
Crime As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time.
The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments.
Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…… [Read More]. Juvenile Justice Victimization of juveniles is more widespread and prevalent than is commonly perceived. This view is shared by many experts in the field who study the statistical data relating to victimization. More than , children - or 12 per 1, - were victims of crime, abuse or maltreatment in Sixty-three percent of maltreated children were neglected, nineteen percent were physically abused, ten percent were sexually abused, and eight percent were emotionally or psychologically maltreated.
NCVC In a recently released report on teen victims of crime, the National Centre for Victims of Crime urged that the problems of juvenile victimization must be addressed to find solutions.
Instead, in the context of crime and violence, our nation's young people are more typically characterized as troublemakers, predators, and violent criminals.
When victimization has been recognized, public attention has…… [Read More]. In Search of Justice and Accountability While the overall crime rate has steadily decreased over the last decade throughout the country, there is one segment of crime that has been increasing: While a number of these juveniles were convicted of committing petty crimes such as vandalism and theft, there has been a significant increase in the number of serious juvenile offences such as robberies, weapons offences, assaults, and murders.
However, there is something that is not quantitatively measured in these crime statistics -- the increasing brutality and ruthlessness of the crimes committed by juvenile offenders. Over the last two decades, we have seen an increasing string of…… [Read More]. Boot Camps Effective Juvenile Justice. In July, , a year-old boy died following the brutal treatment he was subjected to at the Fountain Hills facility in Arizona.
The staff had forced him to "stand in the Arizona sun" in degree temperatures, wearing black sweat pants, according to an article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing Bush, When he - or any of the other inmates - asked for water or food, he was "forced to eat mud.
This paper looks at racial prejudice in the administration of juvenile justice from the point-of-view of who gets locked up, what happens once they're in, and the built-in system cruelty. Another key fact illustrating the institutional bias…… [Read More].
Juvenile Corrections Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community.
In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U. However, in the recent past, the U. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed Caldwell, Background During the 19th century,…… [Read More]. Juvenile Justice Juvenile delinquents Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims Juvenile justice: Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders.
Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults.
Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…… [Read More]. Juvenile Court Juvenile criminal justice system has enforced laws, which govern the rules for determining whether a juvenile criminal is eligible for a sentence or a counseling period is mandatory to alter the behaviors of such individuals.
This system has been effectively placed for children less than the age of 21 who have reportedly committed crimes in various forms such as sex offenders; murderers etc. In this essay, a case study of one of the most fierce juvenile crime acts have been presented which explains a situation where the juvenile criminal was at first ordered to be treated as an adult for the sentence purposes due to committing first degree of the crime.
However, later due to his…… [Read More]. Juvenile Injustice How the Juvenile. While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.
Conclusion The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system.
One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…… [Read More].
Juvenile Rights at the Time. Juveniles may commit crimes on the same level as adults do, but they are of a special case because of their age and relative psychological immaturity. The purpose of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the minors and help them integrate better into the society.
As research shows, police officers come into contact with different kinds of juveniles offenders. They may be mentally ill or handicapped. Some of them come from disorderly families, or are routinely abused physically and sexually by parents or other family members. These unique circumstances make juveniles a special case.
As Lawrence and Hemmens write, police officers need to take special measures in treating juveniles during and after arrest especially because "young persons' views and attitudes toward…… [Read More]. Justice System Juvi Death Penalty. Streib online Regardless of the source of the ethical view there is rising tides that express the evolving attitude that the death penalty, in any case is not a deterrent and is ethically wrong, regardless of the crime or the circumstances of it.
The ethical implications of this ruling clearly create issues surrounding age of consent, as the determining factor of the decision, if an individual is not of the age to consent to vote, joint the military, or even buy alcohol, cigarettes or even a lottery ticket in most states they should therefore not be of the age to consent to an understanding of or a level of lethal responsibility for their violent actions.
The ruling clearly demonstrates an adherence with the historical juvenile justice system's stand on juvenile crime, as the system is structured to develop the idea that crimes, and sometimes even violent ones committed by individuals…… [Read More]. Justice as Retribution Every individual in the globe has a perception towards crime, justice, criminals, and many other aspects in relation to criminals.
On hearing the term "criminal," every individual reacts differently. There are those who feel that a criminal deserves to die, others feel they should rot in prison and many other divergent views. However, does it ever occur that a criminal can be a criminal, through a legal process although they did not take part in the crime?
This is a serious issue, which requires critical reasoning before going around judging or calling other people criminals. To the main point, retribution is the main topic or the subject matter for this paper.
In the criminal context, the term retribution suggests revenge. This revenge, which the court delivers, is unseen by the common people. However, a critical scrutiny suggests that the legal process is also a tool to deliver…… [Read More]. Juvenile Sentencing the Issue of. According to Lawlor, Connecticut has "developed a flexible approach geared toward immediate intervention and proven results" Lawlor. He explains that not every teenaged car thief with a record of several arrests should be sent to prison, just as not every year-old first time truant needs to be simply sent home to his parents Lawlor.
The state of Connecticut has sole responsibility for all probation, adult and juvenile, and all graduated sanctions programs are operated by the state or by private, non-profit organizations funded by the state Lawlor. For more than twenty years, the term 'juvenile' in the state of Connecticut refers to only youths under the age of sixteen; youths who are sixteen years and older are treated as adults for all crimes Lawlor.
In , before the graduated sanctions were implemented, the most serious violent juveniles were the focus of the juvenile court, and all other cases were for…… [Read More]. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites. Bortner and Williams define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met.
The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, Goffman argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More].
Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 's.
This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty.
According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas. Juvenile Offenders and Recividism. Juvenile delinquency has been an ever-evolving issue in the United States.
From aims focused on prevention and rehabilitation that resulted in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of ; to a reverse trend beginning in the mid's, the present has brought on a more prevalent tendency to try juveniles as adults. No more have courts taken to giving juveniles delinquents a second chance through rehabilitation Schmalleger, In recent years, juveniles have faced life sentences without parole like an adult would.
If the trend continues, will the number of juveniles tried as adults grow? Is it the responsibility of the juvenile justice system to prevent crime by enacting harsh penalties on the troubled youth of the country? From a Judeo-Christian perspective, everyone in one way or another, sins. It is up to the government and the community to help sinners see their wrongs and allow them a chance for…… [Read More].
Juvenile Gangs Have Been Thorns on the. Juvenile Gangs Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States.
As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations Klein, The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence.
The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…… [Read More]. Juvenile Corrections Before the Expansion. Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population.
On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services Siegel , Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount.
More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years. Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails Dietch , p.
This is because…… [Read More]. Juvenile Court Philosophy the Office. They must also determine what types of delinquent behavior and youth violence are causing the greatest concern in the community. This intention seriously contradicts the intention of the juvenile justice system to demonstrate focus on individual cases of each juvenile offender and give it adequate time for understanding of all mitigating circumstances, rather than seeking to understand outside fear of crime.
The "mitigating" factors of public crime fear are in dire need of reevaluation, starting with unrealistic and…… [Read More]. These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.
Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs. Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people.
As an example, in , Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Juveniles and Delinquency Youths Are.
Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from to and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise http: Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society.
Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U. But there are still some…… [Read More]. Juvenile Diversion in the Juvenile. The juvenile diversion system was established with funding from the iverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act of , approved by the California Board of Corrections.
The evaluation was meant to collect baseline data and follow-up data to measure the success of each program, with the data including juvenile arrest rates per ,; arrest rates for program participants; incarceration rats; rate of completion of probation; probation violation rate; rate of completion of restitution; rate of completion of community service; and rates of truancy and family violence for those to which these apply.
Performance benchmarks were to be developed for each program iverside…… [Read More]. Juvenile System vs Adult Justice. The actual court proceedings in a juvenile court consist of the arrest procedure, search and seizure, and custodial interrogation Calderon The concept has been that the delinquent is a child rather than a criminal.
Hence, rehabilitation rather than punishment is the court and the system's goal. One is the cause of serious juvenile crime. Another is that young offenders need to be rehabilitated under a surrogate entity of the parens patriae concept. Another is a recent redefinition of young violent offenders as adults and their transfer to adult courts and the criminal or adult justice system. There has been increasing belief that they pose a serious and genuine threat to the safety of other young people and the community as a whole.
An increase in serious juvenile crimes warrants more severe punishment. Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Delinquents in. Economic conditions that have forced both parents to work and have caused teenaged unemployment have also been associated with delinquency, as children are not only unsupervised, but also unoccupied. In addition to this, children who face undue hardships, such as physical and sexual abuse, as well as failure to perform academically, also often turn to delinquency oberts, Like Kim and Kim point out for South Korean children, stress is a likely culprit for the fact that dealing with difficult situations turns into delinquency in youth.
This problem is further compounded if the youth has not had instruction in making good choices from parents and teachers oberts, Thus, although they are on separate sides of the world, the United States and South Korea face many of the same problems when it comes to juvenile delinquents.
In both countries, the lack of a definite role for criminal justice personnel…… [Read More]. Juveniles Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation.
Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between and, in contrast the "modern" period after The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions e.
Meanwhile when the state asserts control over the child due to his non-criminal behavior that governmental intervention supports parens patriae, Siegel maintains. Parens patriae in Latin means "substitute parent"; its been the court's prerogative to intervene in cases where through no fault of his own a child has been neglected or is dependent, Alarid, et al.
States' intervention supports parens patriae simply because state courts believe -- and they assume without really knowing for certain -- that status offender is in his best interests Siegel, Approximately , under age youths technically children are sent to juvenile court as "status offenders" every year, Siegel explains This policy takes due process and throws it out the window, just because the individual is under age.
Juveniles in Adult Incarceration Facilities. In addition, the threat of being placed in an adult facility not only doesn't lower crime rates among juveniles, but increases their chances of recidivism and violent behavior Elikann, As one critic of the current laws stated: Yet today, approximately , young offenders are funneled directly into the adult court system, "the majority for property crimes and drug-related offenses" Bilchik, Sadly, while there are situations in which even an adolescent is a "lost cause" and must be kept locked away, the great majority of cases in which juveniles are tried as adults are unnecessary and unwise Elikann, Granted, the juvenile justice system is overloaded and needs to change, but channeling children into the adult system…… [Read More].
Juvenile Delinquency Has Long Plagued. In this form of punishment, authorities find infractions, encourage compliance and reward or punish and take away rights depending on the individual's response. In , Fritz edl and David Wineman as cited in Vander Ven, wrote about another approach in their book, the Aggressive Child, which proved to be much more successful at their juvenile residence Pioneer House.
However, for various reasons, their methodology never received much of a following Vander Ven, Now, residential institutions are revisiting edl and Wineman's approach, which has greater credibility due to insights in the behavioral sciences over the past several decades. The distinction between typical youth and those who hate and are filled with anger, say edl and Wineman, is that while neither always behave perfectly, typical children will respond to interventions that remind them of what is good behavior.
However, even these "normal" children under certain types of stress may not…… [Read More]. Juvenile Offenders and Rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders have grown to become a serious problem in many countries, especially the United States.
Like adult offenders, juvenile offenders are more likely to reoffend, especially without the proper guidance and assistance they need in order to live a law abiding life. This paper will focus on rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders and prevention programs that help in lessening the number of potential juvenile offenders by proposing alternative means of coping with hardship and stress. Farrington's Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory will be examined within the context of juvenile offenders and how this framework may be applied to understanding Juvenile motivations for engaging in criminal activities Importance of rehabilitation will be emphasized because…… [Read More].
Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the s, with almost 9.
Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…… [Read More]. Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Sexual Offending. Moreover, if an adolescent who has reached 18 commits sexual offending is considered an adult sex offender, "what does this mean for young adults who engaged in sexually abusive behavior prior to age 18?
The holistic model, grounded on the principle that the 'whole' of the person needs to be taken into consideration, must look into the nature of the individual "whose emotions, cognitions, behaviors and relationships are driven by multiple factors, many of which are unique to that individual" p. In other words, the approach should first and foremost focus on learning…… [Read More]. Retrieved on 15 Nov. The history of juvenile justice. Yet, it is very difficult when you do not have the means or the background to do so.
School, home, and up bringing has a lot to do with juvenile behavioral norms. It is like this all over the country no matter where you are you will find out the grass is not always greener on the other side. Society has painted an awful picture of what things should be important and what is not. The lower classes try to put emphasis on family first but are afraid to show that they are in need of help.
Gender, class; race, ethnicity, and delinquency are all linked together in many ways. Yet, it is not because no matter what social class you are in the temptation of doing wrong is still there. There is always a person of any social, ethnical, racial background has the chance of becoming delinquent. Depending on whom they hang out with or the feeling of having to prove yourself, it does not matter who you are. Yes the lower class has more of a susceptible chance of becoming delinquent because of financial hardship, family hardship, or even emotional hardship, but there is always that chance of it hitting the middle class and upper-class too.
Everyone has their own personal opinions that the lower class is all the problems of deviance. There is too much that can disprove this theory. If a middle or upper-class juvenile has been exposed to the gangs, and trouble in school or even if there is divorce in the family.
The juvenile has the temptation to rebel and act out their behavior inappropriately. So where is the difference really except for the financial aspect? Ethnicity, they say more non-white juveniles are a lot more deviant than whites.
This deviance is due to a cultural up bringing rather than color or race. If you were brought up to be a gangster or hang out with those who were social deviants it is your choice whether you want to follow that path or not. It is more of an emotional burden than anything else. When it comes to being socially normal all people should be seen as the same color and treated the same as everyone else. It is also said that males are more susceptible to be caught in deviant behavior.
This could be true. Females tend to try to stay out of trouble and just date the mischievous ones. Females do not have the overwhelming sensation to prove themselves in troublesome way. Females usually are more concerned about popularity in school and their clothing they wear. The reason some females act out in a deviant way is because of social upbringing and their need to fit in and it is only as a last ditch effort to prove they are the best.
Females usually act out in a sexual manner. The feeling of conformity to society is usually what brings in the deviant behavior. If society is overrun by gang type activity, violence, and other crime related activity you are more likely to have deviant childish behavior. It is if a monkey sees a monkey must do society we all live in. If you have a good cultural upbringing and social norms to have the common sense or even the will power to say no it is better for the juvenile not to be deviant.
There are differences in the areas where juveniles grow up. In the larger city you are more likely to have the gang violence and the shootings than you would if a juvenile grew up in a small country type town. Yet, the juveniles have the choice to be deviant even living in a small country town because; they have the overwhelming need to fit in or prove themselves to anyone and everyone. Even the juveniles who go to religious schools have the need to fit in because of clicks and social and fiscal clicks.
In which all the troubles lie. Not knowing where or even how to get the help or are they going to be able to afford the help. In President Bill Clinton tried to raise the budget so lower income families could afford to get the health care needed, food on tables, and child care for those in need. He also tried to get budget increased for juvenile justice programs —including anti-gang, violence prevention, and school violence initiatives.
Portner, Yet today they are trying to take it all those who cannot afford to work or physically just cannot work period. We are unable to defend ourselves because our voices are being overrun by the bigger cities such as Chicago.
The book states that there are more blacks than white juveniles in our jails today because of personal and social upbringing and there need to fit have happened since slavery had begun. They have had it terribly difficult trying to fit in since the early years due to the cultural and social integration of our nation. They would all be judged on their integrity and ability to know what is right and wrong.
On the other hand, I disagree that children should be exempt from punishment, and I fully agree with the four justices that believe a child who commits a heinous crime should be punished with a prison sentence of life without parole.
The eighth amendment bans cruel and unusual punishment to protect its citizens. Therefore it would be unconstitutional for the law to not punish the criminal for their heinous crime.
Additionally, there have been researches and studies conducted in order to answer why teenagers act the way they do. This may explain why children act in this horrific manner, but it does not give them an excuse to commit crime.
That is, until they foul up. Whether the criminal is eleven or seventeen, they are making a conscious decision to engage in a crime.
10 Juvenile Justice Research Paper Topics You Can Feel Free To Use If you are about to write a research paper on topics concerning juvenile justice, you will realize that not all topics may be approved by your tutor.
Juvenile Justice essays In the society we live in today, juvenile justice is a nation wide concern of law enforcement. However to what extent the laws and penalties used towards the youth of today has been a major focus of many criminologists and organizations around the nation. Many people feel t.
Juvenile Justice System Essay The U.S. juvenile justice system is currently designed to address the special needs of minors who engage in criminal acts but might not yet be held fully responsible for their behavior, as they are not yet legal adults recognized by society. 12 Catchy Research Paper Topics On Juvenile Delinquency. In criminal justice programs, English classes and social services degrees, students will often have to write a research paper about juvenile delinquency. Juvenile Delinquency Topic Ideas. Research an essay can take weeks or months, so the process has to be started as soon as.
Dec 03, · Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Juvenile Justice Paper Topics. In order to help you come up with a winning topic idea for a research project related to juvenile offending, here we provide a range of good prompts. Homepage; Criminal justice research paper topics; Creating a title about cloning; Juvenile delinquency is a challenge in so many parts of the world these days. You need to be able to.