A series of studies allowed by the DEA came to a conclusion similar to Bostwick's. The studies also showed that inhaling marijuana through a vaporizer or a spray was a better way to deliver it than by smoking. Among the unanswered questions about medical marijuana is the risk to users. Another drug, Sativex , is in clinical trials in the U. It is a combination of chemicals from the marijuana herb and is sprayed into the mouth.
Sativex is approved in more than 20 countries to treat muscle spasms from MS and cancer pain. No single organization tracks all research studies of medical marijuana and marijuana-based drugs and herbs. The following review is a summary of controlled studies since Patients were less agitated and ate better after treatment. Two animal studies show that chemicals in marijuana may help symptoms of some forms of autism. Several studies on animal and human cells and a small study on 9 people suggested THC and other cannabinoids chemicals derived from cannabis might slow the growth of brain cancer.
Multiple lab studies in human cells have also shown the potential for them to slow other kinds of cancers, such as breast cancer and leukemia ; no studies in people have taken place. More than 45 studies have looked at marijuana and pain related to chronic diseases such as cancer , diabetes , fibromyalgia , multiple sclerosis , HIV, rheumatoid arthritis , and spinal injuries. The studies have included smoked marijuana, along with herbal and man-made forms.
The majority of the studies showed an improvement in pain relief in comparison to a placebo or to other traditional pain medications. About a quarter of the studies showed no improvement.
Personal stories and animal studies have shown that cannabidiol, one of the chemicals in cannabis, may help seizures in children with epilepsy. New York University just announced it will do a study of children with epilepsy and marijuana. Some of the results included a reduction in bowel inflammation and reduced acid reflux. Further, some patients were able to retain more nutrients in their bodies, and the disease went into remission.
More than 24 studies have looked at smoked marijuana, cannabinoids, and MS. Sativex is approved to treat MS in 24 countries, but not in the U. Two clinical trials showed that THC and cannabidiol could help with psychotic and other symptoms. The National Institutes of Health is funding a small clinical trial that also aims to show whether THC and cannabidiol can ease symptoms.
Therefore, because this treatment is not appropriate for all patients, misuse and abuse should be carefully monitored. The only way this can take place is even further documentation and government regulation regarding restriction, proper training of medical professionals and more empirical studies to determine which cases should be considered for treatment.
If you are not familiar with it, an annotated bibliography is a writing assignment that asks you to list all of your academic or peer reviewed sources and its relevance for your own work. If you need some help with your annotated bibliography, then the following annotated bibliography on legalizing medical marijuana can help you write you get started.
It lists all of the sources used and then analyzes how they can be used to form a coherent argument. Note that the sources are not just websites with biased and anecodtal data; instead, the sources reflect great information that is reviewed by other scholars. See below for yourself and remember that these sources are cited using APA format. Peter Clark takes a thorough look at the situation of the legalization of medical marijuana. In doing so, Clark first cited the historical background of medical marijuana from a legal perspective according to DEA compliance policies and the enforcement of it.
Evidence surrounding the medical uses of the drug was cited from notable physicians who have undergone studies. Clark also analyzed the case-by-case basis of each state and how the voting progressed and how it impacts its legality. This source also went into great detail about the legal ramifications of going against federal restrictions and prescribing the drug as an alternative form of medicine. Published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, book offered research guidelines and protocols when studying the use of medical marijuana.
The author argued that a wide range of diverse studies such as surveys, open ended questions and fill in the blanks need to be used to get a full understanding of the consequences of using Marijuana. This research and these guidelines will be helpful in determining the overall approach to doing medical research. By using it, I can have another lens of critique when looking at other research studies regarding medical marijuana. He argued that in making political and ideological claims against the use of the drug, scientific evidence has been used anecdotally where it has been seen fit.
Finally, he went over certain methods of discreditation that have been historically used against the legalization of marijuana. This article will be extremely useful in analyzing the promoting the notion that empirical and scientific evidence should have priority over other forms. Lester Grinspoon took a neuroscience perspective with regards to the addictiveness of medical marijuana. The author argued that since our brain does indeed have a reward center and there is a connection between this part of our brain and THC, there is an addictive trait of marijuana.
The article went into technical details about how dopamine specifically affects this reward center and the implications of it.
This article will be useful in providing more detailed background information regarding the use of medical marijuana. This source gave an interesting anecdote for the support of medical Marijuana. The main subject, JJ, was a severely disturbed child who had a history of psychotic and socially dysfunctional behavior.
In an effort to help him adjust to society, his mother tried various form of treatment. Unfortunately, all of these treatments either made his condition worse or did not help. His violent and psychotic behavior not only ceased completely, but he began to excel in the classroom and even helped other classmates. This source will be useful in applying emotional and anecdotal evidence in promoting the use of medical marijuana. Robert Peterson offers a critical analysis of how marijuana transformed from a cultural fad into a serious form of alternative therapy to common disorders.
Firstly, Peterson acknowledged the general complexity of even taking this medication seriously as so much cultural backlash has been presented against it. He then analyzed the effects of marijuana on specific traits: Moreover, Peterson also remarked about the effects on learning, impairment of motor skills, the heart and other vital bodily organs.
This research article will prove useful in providing another medical perspective in the positive and adverse effects of medical marijuana, despite its individual and societal benefits. This source analyzed both the pros and cons of using medical marijuana based on the testimony of various physicians across diverse disciplines within the medical field. In promoting the use of the drug, many doctors testified that medical marijuana was an effective use of an alternative treatment strategy.
Moreover, this drug worked very well when compared to other more conventional drugs. However, doctors on the other end of the spectrum claim that the same treatment may be beneficial for the long term, it is nonetheless bad for the overall health of humans. This source will be beneficial in applying professional testimony in determining whether medical marijuana should or should not be used. This comprehensive research looks at the overall picture of marijuana use and the effects from a pharmacological standpoint.
The authors go in detail about how marijuana affects the brain, vital bodily organs, reproductive organs and affects overall behavior. They also described what goes in the brain during marijuana use.
This article will be very useful in analyzing marijuana from a pharmacological point of view. It will give my research paper more scientific support for my evidence because it will be supported by these skilled researchers. This early government publication is a comprehensive study about a wide range of marijuana based information.
First, the book argues largely that marijuana is extremely bad for your health and that its addictive nature will only make the user have negative behavior. Second, there are health repercussions from inhaling smoke and such.
Finally, marijuana is said to cause intense social problems because it deters our youth from working and going to school. This article will be useful because it gives an older comprehensive analysis of marijuana.
- Legalizing Marijuana Marijuana is a very controversial and obtrusive issue in our society today. Although many have made malicious remarks about it in the past, and even still in the present, the truth and beneficial facts of marijuana are finally resurfacing.
My thesis is that the legalization of marijuana would have a positive influence on America. In this paper I have tried to show that this is indeed true. The general legalization of marijuana would allow Americans to cultivate and .
Final Research Paper Marijuana Legalization As it stands, recreational and even medicinal applications of marijuana are forbidden in most states. Marjuana Legalization Research Paper Abstract: The prohibition of marijuana has been a heated debate for years. This paper will examine the question of whether or not it will be beneficial to the population as a whole, smokers and non-smokers to legalize marijuana.
I will be exploring two papers, the first is Prohibition Works: Keeping Marijuana Illegal, the second is Legalization of Marijuana. In the paper Prohibition Works the author discusses numerous reasons marijuana should be kept illegal, and the second paper Legalization of Marijuana the author makes many valid points on why marijuana should be legalized . The Legalization of Marijuana Marijuana is a plant, known as cannabis sativa and cannabis indica, which contains a psychoactive chemical called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The effects of THC include disruption of psychomotor behavior, short-term memory impairment, intoxication, stimulation of appetite, antinociceptive, and antiemetic activities.