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Examine your citations and read the information contained in the articles, documents, books, etc. Consider their authority, accuracy, objectivity, currency, and coverage, to see if they are appropriate for your topic.
To save time, gather complete information the first time. For each source that you find, gather the following information: Required citation elements are indicated in bold Author: Publisher location, name, date: Helpful information to relocate material, if necessary optional: Call number if any: Persistent Link for electronic resources: Required citation elements are indicated in bold Article title: Author's name if any: Call number of journal if any: Give credit for the intellectual work of others.
Science tends to use experimentation to study and interpret a specific hypothesis or question, allowing a gradual accumulation of knowledge that slowly becomes a basic assumption. For any study, there must be a clear procedure so that the experiment can be replicated and the results verified. Again, there is a bit of a grey area for observation-based research , as is found in anthropology, behavioral biology and social science, but they still fit most of the other criteria.
Planning and designing the experimental method , is an important part of the project and should revolve around answering specific predictions and questions. This will allow an exact duplication and verification by independent researchers, ensuring that the results are accepted as real. Most scientific research looks at an area and breaks it down into easily tested pieces. The gradual experimentation upon these individual pieces will allow the larger questions to be approached and answered, breaking down a large and seemingly insurmountable problem, into manageable chunks.
True research never gives a definitive answer but encourages more research in another direction. Even if a hypothesis is disproved, that will give an answer and generate new ideas, as it is refined and developed.
Research is cyclical, with the results generated leading to new areas or a refinement of the original process. The term, research , is much stricter in science than in everyday life. It revolves around using the scientific method to generate hypotheses and provide analyzable results. All scientific research has a goal and ultimate aim , repeated and refined experimentation gradually reaching an answer.
These results are a way of gradually uncovering truths and finding out about the processes that drive the universe around us. Only by having a rigid structure to experimentation, can results be verified as acceptable contributions to science.
Some other areas, such as history and economics, also perform true research, but tend to have their own structures in place for generating solid results. They also contribute to human knowledge but with different processes and systems.
Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Feb 2, Retrieved Sep 13, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. The process focuses on testing hunches or ideas in a park and recreation setting through a systematic process.
In this process, the study is documented in such a way that another individual can conduct the same study again. This is referred to as replicating the study. Any research done without documenting the study so that others can review the process and results is not an investigation using the scientific research process.
The scientific research process is a multiple-step process where the steps are interlinked with the other steps in the process. If changes are made in one step of the process, the researcher must review all the other steps to ensure that the changes are reflected throughout the process. Parks and recreation professionals are often involved in conducting research or evaluation projects within the agency.
These professionals need to understand the eight steps of the research process as they apply to conducting a study. The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally. In the example in table 2.
This serves as the focus of the study. Now that the problem has been identified, the researcher must learn more about the topic under investigation. To do this, the researcher must review the literature related to the research problem. This step provides foundational knowledge about the problem area.
The review of literature also educates the researcher about what studies have been conducted in the past, how these studies were conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area. In the obesity study, the review of literature enables the programmer to discover horrifying statistics related to the long-term effects of childhood obesity in terms of health issues, death rates, and projected medical costs.
In addition, the programmer finds several articles and information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that describe the benefits of walking 10, steps a day. The information discovered during this step helps the programmer fully understand the magnitude of the problem, recognize the future consequences of obesity, and identify a strategy to combat obesity i.
Many times the initial problem identified in the first step of the process is too large or broad in scope. In step 3 of the process, the researcher clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study.
This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed. The knowledge gained through the review of literature guides the researcher in clarifying and narrowing the research project. In the example, the programmer has identified childhood obesity as the problem and the purpose of the study. This topic is very broad and could be studied based on genetics, family environment, diet, exercise, self-confidence, leisure activities, or health issues. All of these areas cannot be investigated in a single study; therefore, the problem and purpose of the study must be more clearly defined.
This purpose is more narrowly focused and researchable than the original problem. Terms and concepts are words or phrases used in the purpose statement of the study or the description of the study. These items need to be specifically defined as they apply to the study. Terms or concepts often have different definitions depending on who is reading the study. To minimize confusion about what the terms and phrases mean, the researcher must specifically define them for the study.
The concept of physical health may also be defined and measured in many ways. By defining the terms or concepts more narrowly, the scope of the study is more manageable for the programmer, making it easier to collect the necessary data for the study. This also makes the concepts more understandable to the reader. Research projects can focus on a specific group of people, facilities, park development, employee evaluations, programs, financial status, marketing efforts, or the integration of technology into the operations.
For example, if a researcher wants to examine a specific group of people in the community, the study could examine a specific age group, males or females, people living in a specific geographic area, or a specific ethnic group. Literally thousands of options are available to the researcher to specifically identify the group to study. The research problem and the purpose of the study assist the researcher in identifying the group to involve in the study.
In research terms, the group to involve in the study is always called the population. Defining the population assists the researcher in several ways.
First, it narrows the scope of the study from a very large population to one that is manageable. This helps ensure that the researcher stays on the right path during the study. Finally, by defining the population, the researcher identifies the group that the results will apply to at the conclusion of the study.
A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports.
Research is cyclical, with the results generated leading to new areas or a refinement of the original process. 4) Conclusion. The term, research, is much stricter in science than in everyday life. It revolves around using the scientific method to generate hypotheses and provide analyzable results.
Psychology Definition of PROCESS RESEARCH: Process research looks at the process used in various psychological mechanisms of psychotherapy in relation to their influence on the outcome of treatment. THE RESEARCH PROCESS What is Research? A good working definition of academic research and writing can be given as follows: investigation and writing based upon the idea of scientific inquiry. A reader may at this point wonder if this definition sheds any light on the subject. The key here is to focus on the term “scientific inquiry”.
Meaning and characteristics of research jedliam. Research process Akshay Samant. Characteristics and criteria of good research A B. Steps in research process Nasir Mughal. exswatgd.cf In Research Process Jackson. Ethics In Research Grant Heller. English Español Português Français. Definition of marketing research process: A set of defined stages through which marketing information is collected. Typical steps include: 1) identifying and defining the need or problem; 2) developing an approach to serving the need or.