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Augustine of Hippo

From his birth to his conversion (354-386)

❶Of all the works of the holy Doctor none has been more universally read and admired, none has caused more salutary tears to flow.

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And let me call upon you, believing in You, for you have been preached to us. My faith calls upon you — a faith that you inspired in me through by the coming of your Son through the ministry of Your preacher. Let us correct ourselves! The way has not yet ended; the day is not over. For human and tolerable sins God has established in the Church a time of mercy for distributing daily medicine. We were sick and could not move. And so the heavenly Physician came to the patient; the way was prepared for the wanderer.

Let us be saved by Him; let us walk with Him. He Who has given us the gift of being also gives us the gift of being good. He gives it to those who have turned back to Him. He even sought them out before they were converted and when they were far from His ways. Although the lost sheep could lose itself while wandering, it could not find itself.

If would not have been found if the mercy of the shepherd had not sought it out. Similarly, the prodigal son was also sought out and raised by the One Who gives life to everyone. Just imagine the incredible kindness and mercy of Christ. He was the only Son, but he did not want to remain alone. So that humans might be born of God, God was born of humans. He is through Whom we are born, and through Whom we are to be re-created. We are your little flock, Lord; we belong to You.

Spread your wings that we make take refuge under them. Be our glory, and let us be loved for Your sake, and let your Word be revered in Your midst. The fourth part examines some general matters that span much of his life. The fifth part presents a view of the social, political and religious environment in which Augustine lived.

Augustine, who believed Jewish people would be converted to Christianity at "the end of time", argued that God had allowed them to survive their dispersion as a warning to Christians; as such, he argued, they should be permitted to dwell in Christian lands. For Augustine, the evil of sexual immorality was not in the sexual act itself, but rather in the emotions that typically accompany it. In On Christian Doctrine Augustine contrasts love, which is enjoyment on account of God, and lust, which is not on account of God.

Therefore, following the Fall, even marital sex carried out merely to procreate the species inevitably perpetuates evil On marriage and concupiscence 1.

For Augustine, proper love exercises a denial of selfish pleasure and the subjugation of corporeal desire to God. The only way to avoid evil caused by sexual intercourse is to take the "better" way Confessions 8. Sex within marriage is not, however, for Augustine a sin, although necessarily producing the evil of sexual passion. Based on the same logic, Augustine also declared the pious virgins raped during the sack of Rome to be innocent because they did not intend to sin nor enjoy the act.

Before the Fall, Augustine believed that sex was a passionless affair, "just like many a laborious work accomplished by the compliant operation of our other limbs, without any lascivious heat"; the penis would have been engorged for sexual intercourse "simply by the direction of the will, not excited by the ardour of concupiscence" On marriage and concupiscence 2.

City of God After the Fall, by contrast, the penis cannot be controlled by mere will, subject instead to both unwanted impotence and involuntary erections: It arouses the mind, but it does not follow through what it has begun and arouse the body also" City of God Augustine believed that Adam and Eve had both already chosen in their hearts to disobey God's command not to eat of the Tree of Knowledge before Eve took the fruit, ate it, and gave it to Adam.

Augustine is considered an influential figure in the history of education. A work early in Augustine's writings is De Magistro On the Teacher , which contains insights about education. His ideas changed as he found better directions or better ways of expressing his ideas.

In the last years of his life Saint Augustine wrote his Retractationes , reviewing his writings and improving specific texts. Henry Chadwick believes an accurate translation of "retractationes" may be "reconsiderations". Reconsiderations can be seen as an overarching theme of the way Saint Augustine learned. Augustine's understanding of the search for understanding, meaning, and truth as a restless journey leaves room for doubt, development, and change. Augustine was a strong advocate of critical thinking skills.

Because written works were still rather limited during this time, spoken communication of knowledge was very important. His emphasis on the importance of community as a means of learning distinguishes his pedagogy from some others. Augustine believed that dialectic is the best means for learning and that this method should serve as a model for learning encounters between teachers and students.

Saint Augustine's dialogue writings model the need for lively interactive dialogue among learners. If a student has been well educated in a wide variety of subjects, the teacher must be careful not to repeat what they have already learned, but to challenge the student with material which they do not yet know thoroughly.

With the student who has had no education, the teacher must be patient, willing to repeat things until the student understands, and sympathetic. Perhaps the most difficult student, however, is the one with an inferior education who believes he understands something when he does not. Augustine stressed the importance of showing this type of student the difference between "having words and having understanding" and of helping the student to remain humble with his acquisition of knowledge.

Under the influence of Bede , Alcuin , and Rabanus Maurus , De catechizandis rudibus came to exercise an important role in the education of clergy at the monastic schools, especially from the eighth century onwards.

Augustine believed that students should be given an opportunity to apply learned theories to practical experience. Yet another of Augustine's major contributions to education is his study on the styles of teaching.

He claimed there are two basic styles a teacher uses when speaking to the students. The mixed style includes complex and sometimes showy language to help students see the beautiful artistry of the subject they are studying. The grand style is not quite as elegant as the mixed style, but is exciting and heartfelt, with the purpose of igniting the same passion in the students' hearts.

Augustine balanced his teaching philosophy with the traditional Bible -based practice of strict discipline. Augustine was one of the most prolific Latin authors in terms of surviving works, and the list of his works consists of more than one hundred separate titles.

Apart from those, Augustine is probably best known for his Confessions , which is a personal account of his earlier life, and for De civitate Dei The City of God , consisting of 22 books , which he wrote to restore the confidence of his fellow Christians, which was badly shaken by the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in His On the Trinity , in which he developed what has become known as the 'psychological analogy' of the Trinity , is also considered to be among his masterpieces, and arguably one of the greatest theological works of all time.

In both his philosophical and theological reasoning, Augustine was greatly influenced by Stoicism , Platonism and Neoplatonism , particularly by the work of Plotinus , author of the Enneads , probably through the mediation of Porphyry and Victorinus as Pierre Hadot has argued.

Although he later abandoned Neoplatonism, some ideas are still visible in his early writings. He was also influenced by the works of Virgil known for his teaching on language , and Cicero known for his teaching on argument. Philosopher Bertrand Russell was impressed by Augustine's meditation on the nature of time in the Confessions , comparing it favourably to Kant 's version of the view that time is subjective.

His meditations on the nature of time are closely linked to his consideration of the human ability of memory. Frances Yates in her study The Art of Memory argues that a brief passage of the Confessions , Augustine's philosophical method, especially demonstrated in his Confessions , had continuing influence on Continental philosophy throughout the 20th century.

His descriptive approach to intentionality, memory, and language as these phenomena are experienced within consciousness and time anticipated and inspired the insights of modern phenomenology and hermeneutics. The first thinker to be deeply sensitive to the immense difficulties to be found here was Augustine, who laboured almost to despair over this problem. Martin Heidegger refers to Augustine's descriptive philosophy at several junctures in his influential work Being and Time.

Augustine's philosophical legacy continues to influence contemporary critical theory through the contributions and inheritors of these 20th-century figures. Seen from a historical perspective, there are three main perspectives on the political thought of Augustine: Thomas Aquinas was influenced heavily by Augustine. On the topic of original sin, Aquinas proposed a more optimistic view of man than that of Augustine in that his conception leaves to the reason, will, and passions of fallen man their natural powers even after the Fall, without "supernatural gifts".

According to Leo Ruickbie , Augustine's arguments against magic , differentiating it from miracle, were crucial in the early Church's fight against paganism and became a central thesis in the later denunciation of witches and witchcraft. According to Professor Deepak Lal, Augustine's vision of the heavenly city has influenced the secular projects and traditions of the Enlightenment , Marxism , Freudianism and eco-fundamentalism.

Augustine has influenced many modern-day theologians and authors such as John Piper. Hannah Arendt , an influential 20th-century political theorist, wrote her doctoral dissertation in philosophy on Augustine, and continued to rely on his thought throughout her career.

Ludwig Wittgenstein extensively quotes Augustine in Philosophical Investigations for his approach to language, both admiringly, and as a sparring partner to develop his own ideas, including an extensive opening passage from the Confessions. Contemporary linguists have argued that Augustine has significantly influenced the thought of Ferdinand de Saussure , who did not 'invent' the modern discipline of semiotics , but rather built upon Aristotelian and Neoplatonist knowledge from the Middle Ages, via an Augustinian connection: Saussure did not do anything but reform an ancient theory in Europe, according to the modern conceptual exigencies.

The libretto for this oratorio, written by Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria , draws upon the influence of Metastasio the finished libretto having been edited by him and is based off an earlier five-act play Idea perfectae conversionis dive Augustinus written by the Jesuit priest Franz Neumayr.

Andrea Palent [] says:. Maria Antonia Walpurgis revised the five-part Jesuit drama into a two-part oratorio liberty in which she limits the subject to the conversion of Augustine and his submission to the will of God.

To this was added the figure of the mother, Monica, so as to let the transformation appear by experience rather than the dramatic artifice of deus ex machina. Throughout the oratorio Augustine shows his willingness to turn to God, but the burden of the act of conversion weighs heavily on him.

This is displayed by Hasse through extended recitative passages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Augustine disambiguation , Saint Augustine disambiguation , and Augustinus disambiguation. Saint Augustine of Hippo , Gerard Seghers attr. Ordination history of Augustine of Hippo. Jesus in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection.

Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche. John Henry Newman G. Allegorical interpretations of Genesis. Augustine of Hippo bibliography. Epistola ; TeSelle, Eugene A Survey of Roman Onomastic Practice from c. The Journal of Roman Studies. Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. Sed si disputatione subtilissima et elimatissima opus est, ut sciamus utrum primos homines insipientia superbos, an insipientes superbia fecerit.

Contra Julianum , V, 4. I suppose, in order that, it may consider itself, and live according to its own nature; that is, seek to be regulated according to its own nature, viz.

For it does many things through vicious desire, as though in forgetfulness of itself. For it sees some things intrinsically excellent, in that more excellent nature which is God: See the whole passage: Dixi etiam quodam loco: Quod ideo dictum est, quoniam "libido non est bonus et rectus usus libidinis".

Sicut enim malum est male uti bonis, ita bonum bene uti malis. De qua re alias, maxime contra novos haereticos Pelagianos, diligentius disputavi. De bono coniugali , See also Idem Towards Neoplatonism there was throughout his life a decidedly ambivalent attitude; one must expect both agreement and sharp dissent, derivation but also repudiation. In the matter which concerns us here, the agreement with Neoplatonism and with the Platonic tradition in general centers on two related notions: The disagreement chiefly concerned, as we have said, two related and central Christian dogmas: Clarke, SJ , T.

Augustine and Cosmic Redemption". The Growth of St. Augustine's Mind up to His Conversion. Moreover, if unbelief is fornication, and idolatry unbelief, and covetousness idolatry, it is not to be doubted that covetousness also is fornication. Who, then, in that case can rightly separate any unlawful lust whatever from the category of fornication, if covetousness is fornication? And from this we perceive, that because of unlawful lusts, not only those of which one is guilty in acts of uncleanness with another's husband or wife, but any unlawful lusts whatever, which cause the soul making a bad use of the body to wander from the law of God, and to be ruinously and basely corrupted, a man may, without crime, put away his wife, and a wife her husband, because the Lord makes the cause of fornication an exception; which fornication, in accordance with the above considerations, we are compelled to understand as being general and universal.

But we even use this word 'seeing' for the other senses when we devote them to cognizing We not only say, 'See how that shines', Being and Time , Trs. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 2 ed. The Spirit of Early Christian Thought. Teologins historia [ History of Theology ] in German. Translated by Gene J.

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It was at this time that she went to see a certain holy bishop, whose name is not given, but who consoled her with the now famous words, "the child of those tears shall never perish. Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven: Women, Sexuality and the Catholic Church. St Augustine and Original Sin". Utne Reader , May University of California Press. Augustine of Hippo" The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company Civilization in the West Volume 1: Conversion and Apostasy, — C.

University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 17 June Fordham University, Medieval Sourcebook. Retrieved 30 October Augustine's Queer Theology of Marriage". Journal of Early Christian Studies. Johns Hopkins University Press. Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 22 January Society of Archbishop Justus. Archived from the original on 24 August University of California Press, Here death overtook Monica and the finest pages of his "Confessions" were penned as the result of the emotion Augustine then experienced.

A Biography , Berkeley: The Life of Saint Augustine: Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 26 February Journal of Medieval History.

Schnaubelt; Frederick Van Fleteren 1 January Retrieved 23 March Nullo modo ipsa spernenda sunt corpora.

Haec enim non ad ornamentum vel adiutorium, quod adhibetur extrinsecus, sed ad ipsam naturam hominis pertinent. Substantia quaedam rationis particeps, regendo corpori accomodata. In Fitzgerald, Allan D. Augustine Through the Ages: Lammers; Allen Verhey, eds. Theological Perspectives on Medical Ethics. The University of Chicago Press.

From Pentecost to Patmos. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. De nuptiis et concupiscentia , I, Contra Julianum , VI, Rufinus of Syria and African Pelagianism. God's Decree and Man's Destiny. University of California Press , Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 25 March Biblio Verlag, Introduzione alla Dottrina della Grazia.

I — Natura e Grazia. Augustine of Hippo, On the Good of Marriage , 2. John Hammond Taylor SJ, vol. The Making of the Middle Ages. Biblical and Theological Paths. Peter Martyr Vermigli and Predestination: The Augustinian Inheritance of an Italian Reformer. The Life and Work of the Father of the Church. London — New York. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 21 December Thought's ego in Augustine and Descartes.

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The Edwin Mellen Press. Love, Friendship, and Citizenship". The Review of Politics. American Political Science Review. March "Morality and Capitalism: Learning from the Past". De Dialectica and de Magistro. History of Linguistics From Classical to Contemporary Linguistics. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

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University of Notre Dame Press. Augustine of Hippo and His Monastic Rule. LeMoine, Fannie; Kleinhenz, Christopher, eds. Saint Augustine the Bishop: A Book of Essays. Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum ordinis eremitarum Sancti Augustini — chorographica et topographica descriptio.

Archived from the original on 21 March Natural Theology in the Augustinian Tradition. A Collection of Critical Essays. Garden City, New York: Nash, Ronald H The Light of the Mind: St Augustine's Theory of Knowledge. University Press of Kentucky. Nelson, John Charles Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Saint Augustine asserted that Neo-Platonism possessed all spiritual truths except that of the Incarnation.

Augustine's Philosophy of the Mind. Adam, Eve, and the Serpent:

From his conversion to his episcopate (386-395)

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Works of Augustine. Writings of Augustine; His Spiritual Tradition; His Ideas; His Impact; Order of St Augustine. a step forward This fourth major section of Augnet features the history of the Order of Saint Augustine during more than years. Successively it looks at the international, regional and local levels of the Order.

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Accepted by most scholars to be the most important figure in the ancient Western church, St. Augustine was born in Tagaste, Numidia in North Africa. His mother was a Christian, but his father remained a pagan until late in life. After a rather unremarkable childhood, marred only by a case of.

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St. Augustine of Hippo () was one of the most prolific geniuses that humanity has ever known, and is admired not only for the number of his works, but also for the variety of subjects, which traverse the whole realm of thought. The form in which he casts his work exercises a . St. Augustine: Saint Augustine, bishop of Hippo from to and one of the Latin Fathers of the Church. ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. Start Your Free Trial Early writings. Moderns enamoured of Augustine from the narrative in Confessions have given much emphasis to his short.

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Volume I - Prolegomena: St. Augustine's Life and Work, Confessions, Letters Volume II - The City of God, Christian Doctrine Volume III - On the Holy Trinity, Doctrinal Treatises, Moral Treatises. A preminent Father of the Church, Augustine's towering intellect molded the thought of Western Christianity for a thousand years after his death. He wrote profusely, and among his many works considered here are three spiritual classics; The Confessions, City of God, and The Trinity. Here the reader meets Augustine the convert, the philosopher and psychologist, the preacher and Scripture 5/5(1).