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# Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator

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Moderating Variables A moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent variable-dependent variable relationship. That is, the presence of a third variable the moderating variable modifies the original relationship between the independent and the dependent variable.

For example, a strong relationship has been observed between the quality of library facilities X and the performance of the students Y. Although this relationship is supposed to be true generally, it is nevertheless contingent on the interest and inclination of the students. It means that only those students who have the interest and inclination to use the library will show improved performance in their studies.

In this relationship interest and inclination is moderating variable i. Intervening Variables A basic causal relationship requires only independent and dependent variable.

A third type of variable, the intervening variable, appears in more complex causal relationships. It comes between the independent and dependent variables and shows the link or mechanism between them. Advances in knowledge depend not only on documenting cause and effect relationship but also on specifying the mechanisms that account for the causal relation. In a sense, the intervening variable acts as a dependent variable with respect to independent variable and acts as an independent variable toward the dependent variable.

A theory of suicide states that married people are less likely to commit suicide than single people. The assumption is that married people have greater social integration e.

Hence a major cause of one type of suicide was that people lacked a sense of belonging to group family. Thus this theory can be restated as a three-variable relationship: Specifying the chain of causality makes the linkages in theory clearer and helps a researcher test complex relationships. Look at another finding that five-day work week results in higher productivity.

What is the process of moving from the independent variable to the dependent variable? What exactly is that factor which theoretically affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be seen? Its effects must be inferred from the effects of independent variable on the dependent variable. In this work-week hypothesis, one might docsity.

To rephrase the statement it could be: Extraneous Variables An almost infinite number of extraneous variables EV exist that might conceivably affect a given relationship. Some can be treated as independent or moderating variables, but most must either be assumed or excluded from the study.

Such variables have to be identified by the researcher. In order to identify the true relationship between the independent and the dependent variable, the effect of the extraneous variables may have to be controlled. This is necessary if we are conducting an experiment where the effect of the confounding factors has to be controlled. Confounding factors is another name used for extraneous variables.

Relationship among Variables Once the variables relevant to the topic of research have been identified, then the researcher is interested in the relationship among them. A statement containing the variable is called a proposition. It may contain one or more than one variable.

The proposition having one variable in it may be called as univariate proposition, those with two variables as bivariate proposition, and then of course multivariate containing three or more variables. Prior to the formulation of a proposition the researcher has to develop strong logical arguments which could help in establishing the relationship.

For example, age at marriage and education are the two variables that could lead to a proposition: What could be the logic to reach this conclusion? All relationships have to be explained with strong logical arguments. If the relationship refers to an observable reality, then the proposition can be put to test, and any testable proposition is hypothesis. If you don't receive any email, please check your Junk Mail box.

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The dependent variable is the variable a researcher is interested in. The changes to the dependent variable are what the researcher is trying to measure with all their fancy techniques. In our example, your dependent variable is the person's ability to throw a ball.

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The dependent variable is what is affected by the independent variable-- your effects or outcomes. For example, if you are studying the effects of a new educational program on student achievement, the program is the independent variable and your measures of achievement are the dependent ones.